Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Critically evaluate the extent to which prisoners with learning Essay - 1

Critically evaluate the extent to which prisoners with learning disabilities are discriminated against in the criminal justice system( prison.) - Essay Example Various studies have been conducted emphasising upon this issue where the discrimination in the justice systems involving prisoners with learning disabilities are assessed. Based on a similar context, the study conducted by Fazel & et. al. (2008) revealed that among the aggregate population of prisoners worldwide, a large proportion of imprisoned criminals can be observed as suffering from a kind of disability (Institute for Research and Innovation in Social Services, 2009). This study will be focused on the issue related with the prevalence of prisoners with disabilities today have become a significant concern for researchers being strongly influenced by the social movement emphasising upon discriminatory practices. Research studies in this relation have revealed that prisoners with learning disabilities, which are often categorised as Autistic Spectrum Disorders narrate a comparatively more disturbing psychiatric analysis results, based on their experiences during interrogations and jurisdiction (Leggett & et, al., 2007; Myers, 2004). However, the degree of discrimination or rather relaxation dictated for criminals with learning disabilities, differ from one jurisdiction system to another. Based upon this particular issue, the study will intend to critically evaluate the degree of discrimination being practiced by various jurisdiction systems when judging the criminal conduct of prisoners with learning disabilities. With this concern, the discussion will be structured through an introductory explanation of the issue in focus and comprehensively head towards describing the points along with relevant evaluation. Illustrations will also be taken into account to substantiate the findings of the study where the arguments will be prà ©cised in the conclusion section. Recent updates confirming the noteworthy percentage of vulnerable prisoners identified with learning disabilities was presented by the report published by Talbot (2012). The report confirmed that only

Sunday, October 27, 2019

The Turnover Culture In The Hotel Industry

The Turnover Culture In The Hotel Industry Part B Abstract It is revealed that high labor turnover is a major global problem in hotel industry. The human resource management in the hotel industry is facing challenge about retaining employees and minimizes the turnover. Therefore, it is worth to investigate about the human resource management in the hotel industry. The purpose of this study is to explore the labor turnover in hotel industry, and its associated the factors affecting the labor turnover and how to manage the labor turnover. The labor turnover in hotel industry is influenced by the work related factors, external factors and external factors. According to some statistics, the cost of labor turnover in hotel industry is very high. Moreover, some retention strategy are propose to overcome the labor turnover are discussed including training, employee motivation and employee recognition. Section 1 : Introduction Reason for choice of topic The tourism industry is the leading industry in many countries. Hong Kong tourism industry contributing $162.8 billion or 10.8% of gross domestic product in 2009(http://www.gov.hk/en/residents/, http://www.tourism.gov.hk/textonly/english/statistics/statistics_perform.html ) and Thailand tourism industry generate 6.5% of gross domestic product in 2008 (http://www.thaiwebsites.com/tourism.asp). Accommodation is an essential element of tourism service and it is vital to the quality of the tourist experience, as it constitutes a major part of consumption. This study is to investigate the labor turnover in the hotel organization. It is general known that the hospitality industry has a major challenge about the labor turnover and staff stability rates. These problems are usually occur in the front-line staff as it is related to a lot of unfavorable working conditions in hotel, such as the long working hours, unstable working schedule and lack of promotion opportunities. Therefore, many people are not willing to enter to the hotel industry or some people have work for many years in hotel industry but shift to another industry because of those unfavorable working conditions. Besides, the human resource management in the hotel industry are facing some serious problems about retaining the employees and recruits the right people to fill in the right job. Therefore, it is worthwhile to investigate the factors that cause the front-line employees to quit the job. In addition, to discuss what the human resource management can do to retain the st aff and manage the labor turnover in the hotel organization. Another reason for choosing this topic to study is the authors want to become the human resource manager in a hotel. Therefore, it is vital that the author have a clear understanding of what challenges that the human resource management are facing and to use the specific approach to overcome those problems. 1.2 Academic objectives of dissertation This paper aims to achieve the followings objectives: To find out what is the meaning of labor turnover and have an overview of the turnover culture in the hotel industry To discuss the factors that influence labor turnover in hotel industry. To explain the cost of labor turnover in hotel industry. To find out what the human resource management can do to managing the labor turnover. Outline of sections In section 1, the author talked about her reason for choice this topic and the major objectives through this project. In section 2, the authors explained the concepts of labor turnover briefly and provide an overview of the turnover culture in the hotel industry. In section 3, the author would explain the factors influence the turnover in the hotel industry and have an understanding of the cost of labor turnover. It could help to show the labor turnover is a serious problem within the industry. Moreover, in section 4, the author wants to make others understand how to manage the labor turnover in the hotel industry. Finally in section 5, would be the summary and conclusion about this project. Section 2: Literature review 2.1 What is labor turnover? According to Price (1977, p.15) the term turnover is defined as the ratio of the number of organization members who have left during the period being considered divided by the average number of people in that organization during the period and also each time a position is vacated, a new employee must be hired and trained. This replacement cycle is known as turnover (Woods, 1995, p. 345). Labor turnover refers to the movement of employees in and out of a business. Labor turnover affects both workers and firms: workers may need to learn new job-specific skills, whilst firms incur the costs of hiring and training new workers (Brown et. al., 2009). The new workers may be more highly motivated and more highly skilled. Hence, turnover may enhance firm performance. However, high labor turnover causes problems for the firm as it is costly, lowers productivity and morale. Labor turnover can be divided into two main types: voluntary, where the employees leave of their own free will, and involuntary, where the employer decides that employment should terminate. Retirement can fall into either category (Boella, 2000). Most often the voluntary turnover arises where some employees leave to escape negative work environment factors and other are pulled away from the organization by more attractive opportunities and Cheng and Brown (1998) stated that people quit their job for many reasons, but most reasons are not related to management. In recent study, the involuntary turnover can applied to those employees have a poor performance or have did some serious mistakes then the organization would encourage them to quit than fire them. 2.2 The turnover culture in the hotel industry Everyone knows that the hotel industry is a highly labor-intensive industry but the high labor turnover is a serious problem within the industry all around the world. Some theorists such as Mobley (1977), Price (1977), Price and Mueller (1986) identified a range of other variables such as pay, communication, social integration, reutilization, role overload, promotional opportunity, training, supervisor and co-worker support, and distributive justice as having a significant impact upon turnover. According to the research Griffith University, the primary reason for managerial and operational turnover was voluntary resignation, followed by an internal transfer. Performance related terminations were very low. The main motivating factors for executives, managerial and supervisory staff to change jobs, within the hotel industry, were better career opportunities and better working hours. Changing jobs outside the industry was primarily motivated by higher salaries, working hours and better career opportunities. The data suggests that higher wages and better working hours are the major drivers for managerial employees to leave. Similarly, operational staff seek better wages, better working hours and improved career opportunities. In the pervious years, a small among of staff in hotel industry will stay for longer than five years but the voluntary turnover is gradually increase compared with the last decades. According to Kennedy and Berger (1994, p. 58) they stated that, in the hospitality industry, the highest turnover occurred during the first 4 weeks (in employment). The cause of turnover is often poor human resource decisions and the unmet expectations of newcomers. 2.3 Factors affecting employee intent to leave in the hotel industry There are many factors affecting employee turnover. According to a widely accepted though, employees usually quit their jobs because of lack of wages. However, many studies show that there are also many complex factors affecting employee turnover other than wage, such as the management of the company, economics, and psychology. In the following section, some factors affecting employee turnover are discussed. 2.3.1 Work Related Factors The work related factors are other factors that will influence the labor turnover in the hotel industry. The following section will mainly focus on the job satisfaction, pay, working environment, work performance, promotion opportunities and the organization commitment how to influence the labor turnover. 2.3.1.1 Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction is containing the satisfaction with pay, satisfaction with the work itself, satisfaction with the supervision, satisfaction with the promotion opportunities (Khatri et. al., 2003). According to Davis (1981), job satisfaction can be defined as pleasantness or unpleasantness of employees while working. In addition, Oshagbemi (2000) has defined job satisfaction as individuals positive emotional reaction to particular job. The term job satisfaction is considered an attribute that exists as the equity of a variety of desired and non-desired job-related experiences. It is also defines as the degree of fit between the features of a job and employees expectations. In addition, there are researchers who view that job satisfaction is a result of both employees expectations and aspirations and their existing status (Clark Oswald, 1996). When the employees with a lack of job satisfaction they will be quitting the job, and the basic reason is that they expect to have a more sati sfying job. On the other hand, if the employees have a high job satisfaction, the organization will be fewer labor turnovers. Price and Mueller (1981) stated that job satisfaction has an indirect influence on turnover through its direct influence on formation of intent to leave. Another study stated that employees with higher degree of trust would have higher levels of job satisfaction in the hospitality industry (Gill, 2008). 2.3.1.1.1 Pay According to the past study, the average annual wages of hotel are very low compare with the other industries such as the IT technology and education industry. A low starting salary is found in the frontline department in the hotel industry such as the housekeeping, Food and Beverage and front office. It was shown that dissatisfaction with pay is among the significant factors responsible for turnover (Pavesic and Brymer, 1990; Pizam and Ellis, 1999). Pay is received by the staff and money is equivalent to staffs effort to provide service. The salary, compensation and fringe benefit received by the staff are also the pay. Therefore, if the pay is increase, it can reduce the labor turnover. The relationship between pay and job satisfaction has received considerable attention (Churchill, FordWalker, 1974; Lawler, 1995). The pay was the most important job attribute contributing to job satisfaction in the Hong Kong hotel industry. Therefore, higher pay is significantly related to greater job satisfaction. The staff will be more satisfied with their job when the actual pay is more than the expected pay. The other situation that causes the staff to be more likely to leave their organization is that when they perceive that they are receiving lower salary but they know the other people elsewhere are offered better pay. Therefore, offering higher wages than competing organization will enable the organization to retain some talented worker. 2.3.1.1.2 The work itself The work itself is a critical dimension in employee job satisfaction (Luthans, 1992; Lawler, 1995; Qu, Ryan Chu, 2001; Groot Van Den Brink, 1999) and Glisson and Durick (1988) considered the worker and the nature of the work itself as two important factors affecting job satisfaction. The internal satisfactory factors are related to the work itself, such as: feeling of achievement, feeling of independence, self-esteem, feeling of control and other similar feelings obtained from work. And the external satisfactory factors such as: receiving praise from the boss, good relationships with colleagues, good working environment, high salary, good welfare and utilities. There is a relationship between job satisfaction and stress. Barsky, Thoresen, Warren and Kaplan(2004) argued that high level of work stress will be decrease the job satisfaction and finally leaving the organization because workers feel their job duties are difficult to fulfill. Price (1977) divided job stress into four types: lack of resources to perform, the amount of workload, the clarity of the role obligations and the role conflict. Those job stresses will also make the employees intent to quit the organization. 2.3.1.1.3 The supervision Supervision, being one of the dimensions of job satisfaction (Rust et al., 1996), is defined from the employee-centeredness perspective, it is manifested in ways such as checking to see how well the subordinate is doing, providing advice and assistance to the individual, and communicating with the worker on a personal as well as an official level (Luthans, 1992, pp. 121-122). Some information show that, satisfaction with supervisor will influence job satisfaction positively and finally decrease the labor turnover. If the supervisor provide more concern and social support to the employees, they will be more satisfy and the turnover will be decrease. 2.3.1.1.4 The promotion opportunities Price (2001) stated that promotion opportunities are the potential degree of movement to a higher level status within an organization. The promotion opportunities are also the important category to define the employees are satisfy or dissatisfy, because promotion opportunities are usually associated with increase the salary. However, the result show that hotel sector are lack of promotion opportunities rather than not having enough fair promotion policy (Iverson and Derry. 1997). Due to the hotel industry are lack of promotion opportunities, it will reduce the chance to retain the talented employees in the organization. When employees suffering from unfair treatment, they will change their job attitude immediately and may quit in long run (Vigoda, 2000). 2.3.1.2 The Organization Commitment According to Pennstate (2006), organizational commitment is the relative strength of an employees attachment or involvement with the organization where he or she is employed. Organizational commitment is important because committed employees are less likely to leave for another job and are more likely to perform at higher levels. There are three dimensions of organizational commitment, which are affective commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment. Turnover literature has consistently found a strong relationship between turnover and organizational commitment, indicating that employees with low commitment are likely to withdraw from the organization. Alternatively, a positive relationship has been found between organizational commitment and career progress or internal promotions indicating that promoted employees are more likely to exhibit higher organizational commitment. 2.3.1.3 Work Performance Employees work performance is another factor affecting labor turnover. According to a study conducted by Jewell and Siegal (2003), it was found that the employees having high performance were not willing to leave their jobs. At this point of view, if the employees having low performance leave their jobs for any reasons, labor turnover is not an important matter for the company. On the other hand, if the employees have a high job performance. Low wages, exclusion from prizes, unsuitable jobs are also among the reasons causing low performance and high employee turnover. 2.3.1.4 Personal Reason Some employees also leave their jobs because of personal reasons. A principal reason that employees leave their jobs is lack of incentives (Pizam and Ellis, 1999). Employees may simply want recognition or an opportunity in advance. For example, The Ritz Carlton Company has reduced employee turnover by focusing on quality recruitment, providing better training and orientation, establishing realistic career opportunities and creating long-term incentive and reward systems. 2.3.2 Demographic Factor Most voluntary turnover models include demographic variables such as age, gender, race, tenure, marital status, number of dependents, and educational experience. However, this paper only focuses on the level of education, gender, marital status and age. 2.3.2.1 Level of Education One of the major challenges of the hospitality industry is the retention of highly educated employees. We define highly educated staff as employees who have followed a higher education program at a bachelors or masters level successfully ( Deery and Shaw, 1999). Carbery et al. (2003) noted that those more highly educated managers or non-managers are more likely to intent to make a turnover decision. One research study by (Blomme et. al., 2010), it shows that among alumni of the Hotel School The Hague who are working worldwide has shown that within 6 years after graduation about 70% of all graduates from the hotel school The Hague leave the organization in which they are working. The more highly educated staff will be less easily satisfied with their jobs than those staff with lower education level because the highly educated staff have higher expectations in job status and salary and they may not be willing to join or stay in the hotel industry. In addition, the external labor market s will provide many opportunities for those highly educated people to satisfy their high expectation on financial benefit. (Wong, Siu Tseng, 1999) 2.3.2.2 Gender Some study noted that, the female and male have their particular behavior that would influence the labor turnover. According to a study conducted by(Doherty and Manfredi,2001:62), it was found that women workers leave their jobs more than men workers, because the roles of women have to taking care of children, having baby in a society and doing house work. In addition, Hersch and Stratton (1997) stated that women, especially married women, spend more time engaged in household activities and are substantially more prepared to quit their job for a family-related reason than men . Some women workers also do not want to return to their jobs after having baby. On the other hand, the study conducted by Tang and Talpade (1999), it stated that males tended to have higher satisfaction with pay than females, whereas females tended to have higher satisfaction with co-workers than males. Its means that women tend to rate social needs as more important than men such as working with people and being helpful to other. Men tend to consider pay more important than do women. Women often begin their careers with much lower expectations than men do and they are willing to take career risks and change employers to do so. Finally, women workers usually work at the entry level jobs in hotel and accordingly get less pay than their men co-workers. According to a study conducted by Iverson (2000) in the USA, it was found that women managers in hotel got very less wages than men managers whether in the beginning or top of their careers. In a similar study, it was found that men workers got more wages than women workers got (Burgess, 2000). It was also found that in order to balance the wage differences among men and women workers, basic and routine job were given to women workers than men workers. 2.3.2.3 Marital Status According to Pizam and Ellis (1999), it stated that marital status could influence labor turnover. Those married employees are most concerned with the balance between their work and family life. Hom and Griffeth (1995),stated that married employees will not want to have a voluntary turnover. Because they have many concerns about the financial needs for their family. If they cannot afford the long and unstable working hours, they will tend to give up the job. However, this issue mostly occurs on women. Therefore, they will have more time for family life and take care of their child. On the other side, the unmarried employees will consider factors related to their jobs such as promotion opportunities and organization commitment more than those married employees (Wong, Siu Tsang, 1999). Therefore, they are less satisfied with their job than married employees. 2.3.2.4 Age In recent study, Hartman and Yrle (1996) points out that the Generation Y employee mostly creates the labor turnover in hospitality industry. In addition, the study conducted by Iverson and Deery (1997), it stated that younger employees have a higher propensity to leave than older employees. The problem was arisen in this decade; as the employees born in the baby boomer are retire gradually. The baby boomer is anyone born between 1946 and 1964. They have been through periods of war; therefore have less opportunity in education institutions. They tend to demand more stability in their workplace, and they are very loyalty to their employees. On the other hand, the Generation Y employee who was born between the years 1979 and 1994, they can adapt the changes easily and seek a higher standard of life therefore, they consider more about their interest in the work. Furthermore, they usually change their job, as they want to gain more experience and make their life more diversity. 2.3.3 External Factors The external factors are the factors that we cannot control and very difficult to predict. Some of these factors include political shifts, legislation, new or modified regulations, global economic conditions, technology changes and major mining disasters. In some study, the hotel industry is quite easily influenced by the global economic conditions. The economic situation could predict most of the labor turnover within the industry. Therefore, the unemployment rate affects the employees perception on job satisfaction. If the economic is down turn, the employees who perceive a high level of job dissatisfaction, they may still stay in organization because they dont want to lose their current job and also the job market is a lack of opportunities for them to get a better job. On the other hand, if the economic condition have improve, the employees will leave the organization immediately to find a better job. Therefore, it may create the high level of labor turnover when the economic have improved. In the later part of the literature will focus on how to manage the labor turnover in order to minimize the labor turnover within the hotel industry. 2.4 The cost of labor turnover In the previous section, some of the critical factors that affect the labor turnover are discussed. The following section will focus on the cost of labor turnover and its impact. Labor turnover is a significant cost to hotel and it may be the most significant factor affecting hotel profitability, service quality and skills training. (Davidson et. al., 2009). The cause of labor turnover is multidimensional, such as low morale, low productivity, low standard of performance and absenteeism. According to the statistics from TTF Australia(2006), the annual cost of replacing managerial employees was $109,909 per hotel and the annual cost of replacing operational employees was $9,591 per employee. The total annual cost of turnover ($49M) equates to 19.5% of 64 surveyed hotels total payroll costs ($250M). Another study stated that the Marriott Corporation alone estimated that each 1% increase in its employee turnover rate, costs the company between $5 and $15 million in lost revenues (Schlesinger and Heskett, 1991).Therefore, the cost of labor turnover is very high. Labour turnover is not only a significant tangible dollar cost but also an intangible or hidden cost associated with loss of skills, inefficiency and replacement costs (Lashley Chaplain, 1999). The direct impact of labor turnover will cause financial suffering such as administrative cost and Lashley (1999) refers to lost investment in training and lost staff expertise as particular examples of turnover costs and opportunity costs. For the indirect impacts caused by high labor turnover are lack of manpower, poor quality of service and low morale of employees and also if turnover increases, service quality may decline as it takes time and resources to back fill departing employees, especially at busy hotels (Lynn, 2002). Labour is a significant cost and the leakage of human capital through unnecessary turnover is an element of critical importance to bottom line performance. A number of HRM practices have been suggested as potential solutions for turnover, such as investment in training, offering organisational support, adopting innovative recruitment and selection processes, offering better career opportunities (Cheng Brown, 1998; Forrier Sels, 2003; Hinkin Tracey, 2000; Walsh Taylor, 2007; Walters Raybould, 2007) and adopting measures to increase job satisfaction and commitment. 2.5 How to manage the labor turnover in the hotel industry? High staff turnover is the common problem in hotel industry, it is also a major factor affecting workplace efficiency, productivity, and hotel cost structure. Labor turnover represents a challenge for contemporary HRM strategies and practices. Therefore, in this section, it will turn to focus on how to manage the labor turnover from the human resources perspective. In the previous section, the cost of labor turnover in the hotel is discussed. The total annual cost of turnover ($49M) equates to 19.5% of 64 surveyed hotels total payroll costs ($250M). The turnover cost are very high, thus the awareness of the importance of employees staying with an organization is evident. Hinkin and Tracey (2000) advocate that hospitality executives who understand the value of human capital and adopt organizational policies and management practices in pursuit of employee retention will outperform the competition. Effectively designed and well implemented employee retention programs that increase employee tenure more than pay for themselves through reduced turnover costs and increased productivity (Hinkin and Tracey, 2000). According to 2500 supervisors, managers and executives within this sector, the top five most important aspects a company can provide to retain their people are as follows: communication, Leadership, Career path, development and understanding aspirations and helping the individual towards achieving them.(Baum ,2006) This shows that, the employee are highly concern for this five elements to determine their job satisfaction. Therefore, when HRM design for a retention scheme, they can consider those five elements before their decision. 2.5.1 Training In organizations where employees receive the proper training needed to assume greater responsibilities, turnover rates are generally lower. Several studies show that training activities are correlated with productivity and retention (Delery and Doty, 1996; Huselid, 1995; Kallenberg and Moody, 1994; MacDuffie, 1995; Shaw et al., 1998; Terpstra and Rozell, 1993; US Department of Labor, 1993, Walsh and Taylor, 2007; Youndt et al., 1996). Staff is a unique asset in the company. Therefore, many hotel have invest a huge number of money per year for staff development. Because they realize that provide training to their employees would enhance the organization produtivity and improve their job performance. For the long-term purpose, training can solve the problem of high labor turnover in a hotel. Moreover, the hotel industry are now have a general shortage of the middle management staff. Therefore, the training should be around to develop and train new management personnel. For example, in 2004 Shangri-La Hotel Resorts Shangri-La Academy was born, this is a full-time facility that handles internal training for progression up the ranks. In addition, the Intercontinental Hotel Group also launched an in-house training center in order to groom their high potential employees to take on managerial positions within their company. Those measures of the Shangri-La Hotel and the Intercontinental Hotel Group is to do the retention of their employees and confront the trend of shortage of experienced staff and try to minimize the labor turnover. 2.5.2 Motivate the employee Staff motivation is as vital to success as any skill or personal attribute and its also plays a key role in staff retention. Motivation is the process by which a persons efforts are energized, directed, and sustained toward attaining a goal.(Stephen Coulter, 2006:482) . Staff motivation is a key element in retaining staff and help them increase the job satisfaction thus the labor turnover rate may be decrease. It is essential for the management of hotels to develop efficient HRM polices and practices that enable them to motivate competent employees who can contribute to the achievement of their objectives. This requires employees at different levels of management and at different stages in their career in order to maintain high morale and high performance (Enz and Siguaw, 2000). If hotel managers can satisfy their employees, it will help them to improve customer satisfaction in the long run and retain them. (Tsaur and Lin, 2004). 2.5.3 Employee recognition, rewards and compensation Numerous studies have addressed the impact of employee compensation, rewards and recognition on turnover and retention. If the hotel manager gives more recognition, rewards and compensation to their employees, it can minimize the turnover. Several research studies found that highly competitive wage systems promote employee commitment and thus results in the attraction and retention of a superior workforce (Becker and Huselid, 1999; Guthrie, 2001; Shaw et al., 1998). Shaw et al.s (1998) study further noted that employees will remain with an organization as long as it serves their self-interest to do so better than the alternatives available to them elsewhere. The study also found that companies providing incentive plans to employees are more likely to experience lower turnover rates among non-managerial employees. Milman (2003) concluded that the most significant retention predictors included intrinsic fulfillment and working conditions rather than monetary rewards. Similarly, the study by Walsh and Taylor (2007) revealed that although compensation and work-life balance are important, it is the absence of opportunity for professional growth and development that affects management retention and turnover (Walsh andTaylor, 2007). Section 3: Summary and Conclusions Labor turnover refers to the movement of employees in and out of a business. Labor turnover may enhance firm performance but high labor turnover causes problems for the firm such as lowers productivity and morale. Labor turnover can be divided into two main types: voluntary and involuntary. High labor turnover is a serious problem within the industry all around the world. A range of other variables such as pay, communication, social integration, reutilization, role overload, promotional opportunity, training, supervisor and co-worker support, and distributive justice as having a significant impact upon turnover. The reasons of labor turnover in hotel industry can be classified as work related factors, demographic factors and external factors. For the work related factors, job satisfaction can be defined as pleasantness or unpleasantness of employees while working. It is containing the satisfaction with pay, satisfaction with the work itself, satisfaction with the supervision, satisfaction with the promotion opportunities When the employees with a lack of job satisfaction they will be quitting the job. On the other hand, if the employees have a high job satisfaction, the organization will be fewer labor turnovers.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Fire with Fire by Naomi Wolf :: Feminism

Naomi Wolf, author of Fire with Fire, is one of the most well known women in modern feminism. In her commencement speech to Scripps College in 1992, she strongly expresses the unfair treatment of women in today’s society. By focusing on survival and weakness, Wolf relays ways to prevent and eliminate discrimination. She conveys her beliefs by expressing important facts about the way women were treated in past history and the way women should be treated today. Along with this, she expresses that women should stand their own ground and that it is their responsibility to determine their status in today’s society. She compares women and men to demonstrate how society differentiates between the two. Wolf speaks of four areas in which she feels women are discriminated in the most. First, she discusses the differences in how society determines how one becomes an adult. She said that boys become men just by taking on responsibility, and for most men, this could happen at an early age. But for women, society requires that they must first finish school before they are considered adults. This is an example of how society places men above women by allowing men to be seen as adults and have adult privileges. Next, she discusses the fact that men earn more money than women in the workplace. She said, "Women make 68 cents for every male dollar. . . (Wolf, p. 2)." This is another example of how society favors men. Wolf then discusses how men often act superior to women simply for the fact that they are treated better by society. Men have traditionally been the primary breadwinners and have taken care of the family, and, for this, men feel that they can look down on women. Finally, Wolf speaks of the fact that women are expected to keep quite when a problem occurs and not speak up for what they believe in. She says, "We are told that the worst thing we can do is cause conflict, even in the service of doing right" (Wolf, p. 2). Once again society favors men by allowing them to speak up for their rights, but looks down upon women for doing the same thing. Wolf feels that these four areas are what contribute to the weakness of a woman in today’s society. Fire with Fire by Naomi Wolf :: Feminism Naomi Wolf, author of Fire with Fire, is one of the most well known women in modern feminism. In her commencement speech to Scripps College in 1992, she strongly expresses the unfair treatment of women in today’s society. By focusing on survival and weakness, Wolf relays ways to prevent and eliminate discrimination. She conveys her beliefs by expressing important facts about the way women were treated in past history and the way women should be treated today. Along with this, she expresses that women should stand their own ground and that it is their responsibility to determine their status in today’s society. She compares women and men to demonstrate how society differentiates between the two. Wolf speaks of four areas in which she feels women are discriminated in the most. First, she discusses the differences in how society determines how one becomes an adult. She said that boys become men just by taking on responsibility, and for most men, this could happen at an early age. But for women, society requires that they must first finish school before they are considered adults. This is an example of how society places men above women by allowing men to be seen as adults and have adult privileges. Next, she discusses the fact that men earn more money than women in the workplace. She said, "Women make 68 cents for every male dollar. . . (Wolf, p. 2)." This is another example of how society favors men. Wolf then discusses how men often act superior to women simply for the fact that they are treated better by society. Men have traditionally been the primary breadwinners and have taken care of the family, and, for this, men feel that they can look down on women. Finally, Wolf speaks of the fact that women are expected to keep quite when a problem occurs and not speak up for what they believe in. She says, "We are told that the worst thing we can do is cause conflict, even in the service of doing right" (Wolf, p. 2). Once again society favors men by allowing them to speak up for their rights, but looks down upon women for doing the same thing. Wolf feels that these four areas are what contribute to the weakness of a woman in today’s society.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Toyota’s Ethics and Quality Assurance

Introduction Ethics and Quality are cornerstones for sustainability and the economic performance of Toyota and other entities within their supply chain. The two play a major role an in Toyotas strategic plan; they are woven in the very fabric of the culture of the organization; and they are integrated in risk management as a part of the contingency plan. This paper seeks to highlight Toyota’s concepts of ethics and quality; their continuous benchmarks for improvement as well as their use of knowledge management throughout their supply chain. Ethics in the Supply Chain As part of my analysis of Toyota’s underlying concept of ethics for supply chain management, the following is five essential values implemented by Toyota: 1. Contribute to the development and welfare of the country by working together, regardless of position, in faithfully fulfilling your duties; 2. Be ahead of the times through endless creativity, inquisitiveness, and pursuit of improvement; 3. Be practical and avoid frivolity; 4. Be kind and generous; strive to create a warm, homelike atmosphere; 5. Be reverent, and show gratitude for things great and small in thought and deed. These values are the guiding principles for their production and supply system. They incorporate three core philosophies: customer first, employee satisfaction and company stability. They have also worked in defining boundaries of the supply chain both internally as well as externally. Quality in the Supply Chain Toyota maintains a commitment by putting customers and quality first, and this means ensuring customer satisfaction through the products and services it offers. With respect to quality, Toyota implements â€Å"jikotei kanketsu†, which is a concept that holds true that defect-free process completion ensures that no defective product leaves any production process. Toyota also strives to preserve and improve quality at the world’s highest level and raise cost competitiveness to support high-quality and sustainable growth. They strive to project years into the future and make intentional earnest steps toward making improvements to each and every process. Total ocus and commitment on these ideas has made possible steady well-documented processes, Toyota’s ability to offer the highest quality products and services at the lowest possible cost, and getting it there in the shortest lead time. Knowledge Management Knowledge can be defined as a synergy framed from experience, values, data, evaluation, and expert insight. Knowledge management is a multi-discipline within an organization that makes the best use of knowledge by making it available, sharing it with everyone, and making sure that it is structured in a highly formalized system in an effort to achieve its stated goals and objectives. Toyotas knowledge management strategy focuses on reducing cost risk, leveraging existing assets to reduce cycle time, improve decision making, develop innovative technology faster, develop solutions to problems quicker, and to increase versatility within the workforce. References Bozarth, C. , & Handfield, R. (2008). Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management (2nd ed. ). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Financial Statements for Internal Reporting vs. External Reporting Purposes

Financial Statements for Internal Reporting Purposes vs. Financial Statements for External Reporting Purposes It is common in most companies to maintain two set of financial statements; one being used/presented for internal reporting purposes and another for reporting externally. Internal reports are used primarily to aid management in the decision making process throughout the course of the business. These are subject to internal audit to make sure that all information reported are fair and correct, safeguard the assets of the company, assure compliance to laws and regulations, etc. The company employs the internal accountants and therefore, unregulated, although there are international standards for internal auditing. External Reports on the other hand, are to provide information on the financial position, performance and changes in the financial position of the company for a variety of users such as the government, shareholders, financial institutions, employees, vendors, and the public itself. These reports should be very understandable, and are assumed to be read by users who have reasonable knowledge on financials and business, and for those who are willing to study the information diligently. Most of the external users depend completely on these reports for their decision making. The reports are expected to be reliable so the companies should employ external auditors that are independent from the company. This is to avoid conflict of interests and bias towards the information presented by the company. Ideally, the financial statements that are audited by the internal auditors should be the same as the statements that would be subject to external audit. The problem arises when the company decided to report financial statements that are entirely different from the internally used and that of externally used. But still the intention of the company why it reported two different reports should be considered as well because that is where the ethical issue starts. If the company’s primary intention is to conceal the truth to avoid tax penalties, attract more investors, or lure a vendor to give a high credit limit, then the ethical standard of utilitarianism, rights and duties as well as the fairness and equity are violated. For utilitarianism approach, the external users will surely not benefit from the concealment. Their investments, assets, as well as the benefits from taxes are at risk. Only the company will benefit from it. In terms of the rights and duties approach, the shareholders has all the rights to know the true standing of the company and the duty of the company is to provide them the truth. The issue on fairness and equity is that other users may be able benefit from some concealment while others may not. Maintaining two sets of Financial Records/Statement has been a long practice for almost all if not all major companies worldwide. An example of which is the manner of reporting sunk costs. Companies do recognize sinking cost in the Financial Statement. While this could be creditable as expense for tax accounting purposes, the said cost is no longer relevant for management decision thus no longer required in the books for Internal Purposes. Keeping two books would allow company executives to better examine items that matter to them especially those which affect the company in the future. There is nothing wrong in maintain two sets of books specially if the reports are in accordance the accounting guidelines such as the GAAP or other statutory requirements required by the government where the company operates and are prepared in accordance with the Bureau of Internal Revenue regulations. As explained above, the books for internal management are for their use only and need not be shown to the public or used in taxation purposes.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

New Years resolutions for career success in 2018

New Years resolutions for career success in 2018 A new year is often looked at as an opportunity for making positive changes, and we’re all familiar with the tradition of making New Year’s resolutions- as we end each year and look forward to the next, we take stock of the things we want to improve upon or change in our lives. Those among us who are diligent enough to take things one step further set a plan for achieving our resolutions, and some among us actually follow through by putting in the time and effort to achieve our stated goals. And for the most dedicated and focused among us, sometimes a positive change and lasting result is achieved. Our New Year’s resolutions can vary across an endless array of categories- from finding love, making new friends, and moving to a new city to acquiring a new hobby or skill set. Among the most popular resolutions that people make involve job- and career-related goals. However, while making a New Year’s resolution for career change and success can be the beginnin g of a wonderful new chapter in our lives, it’s really just the first step.Positive intent can be a powerful motivating force for change and growth in our lives, but the truth is that it’s often not enough- this is the reason why the majority of us fail to completely commit and follow through on the resolutions we make each year. The truth is, most resolutions flounder in the starting gate without any real forward progress ever being made, and many others are met with a feeble, half-hearted effort that eventually goes nowhere.) We need more than a positive attitude and hope- we need a plan.According to a recent article on The Muse, â€Å"Those who took meaningful steps to achieve their resolutions- setting step-by-step goals or telling their friends and family, for example- were far more likely to achieve their desires than those who made no specific commitments†¦ So if you really want to see results this year, it’s critical that you set your goals with si ncerity, and set yourself up for success.†What are your New Year’s resolutions for career success in 2018? More importantly, do you have a plan for achieving them? Let’s take a closer look at some of the most popular career-related resolutions, and some advice for taking them past the â€Å"good idea† stage and closer to the â€Å"goal achieved† category.I want a promotion.Who among us doesn’t want a loftier position with a more impressive sounding title and a higher salary, regardless of where we currently work? The truth is, this isn’t always an immediately attainable reality for everyone- maybe you’re just getting started at your current job and it’s too soon to start thinking about a promotion, or maybe the place you work at is small and there’s no clear upward trajectory. Whatever the reason, if you’re seeking a promotion and there’s no obvious path for growth for you in your current job, perhaps this means you should make a more drastic change as part of your New Year’s resolution planning.However, if there are opportunities for growth on the horizon for you, then take a step back and a deep breath and think carefully before blindly charging into your boss’s office and demanding a promotion.Take stock of your current situation- have you spent the last year working hard to convince your boss that you are ready, willing, and able to take the next step to a new job with greater responsibility? Has your boss been giving you positive feedback all year about how valuable you are to the company and how everyone is impressed with the job you’ve been doing? If so, then you’ve already been working hard to achieve your goal of getting a promotion- the next step is choosing the right time, place, and method for asking for one. This is highly subjective and based on your individual job situation. Do you have annual review meetings with your boss to discuss s uch issues? If so, then this would be the ideal time to broach this subject. Or perhaps your boss is open to feedback and discussions whenever they arise. If so, choose a day when your boss seems to be in a good mood and go for it!Maybe you haven’t been getting great signals that your boss would be terribly receptive to the idea of you asking for a promotion. If this sounds more like your reality, then it may be wise to concoct a more long-term plan. Spend the next several months- maybe even the entire next year- anticipating your boss’s needs, doing your job to the absolute best of your ability, and sowing the seeds for popping the big â€Å"promotion question† next year. Like we said earlier, sometimes you need a plan, and there’s nothing quite as defeating or draining as asking for a promotion before you’re ready and meeting rejection.I want a new job.Okay so maybe you’ve reached as high and as far as you can possibly go in your current j ob, faced every challenge, conquered every obstacle, and mastered every skill that you could possible acquire. It’s time–you’re ready for a change. It happens, and it’s a perfectly natural and healthy part of any career path. In fact, job changes are often great opportunities to climb to the next rung on your career ladder. However you should  consider some advance planning before you race out of your current job screaming, â€Å"I quit!†Get a feel for the current job market in your field and area. Are there a wealth of opportunities available, or is it slim pickings? Take a subtle poll of the folks in your peer network who work at other companies. Does it sound like you may be able to go after an opportunity through your contacts?If conditions out in the job market seem great, then plan for your next steps- polish up your resume and cover letter, make sure your interview clothes still fit, and get out there! However, if you’re seeing some warning signs that right now might not be the best time to jump ship, then bide your time and plan accordingly. Don’t forget, you can do some subtle and covert planning for your next job while you’re at your current one so when the iron is hot you’ll be prepared to strike!I want to make a major job or career change.Perhaps you’re just not feeling completely happy or fulfilled in your current industry, and something is telling you that perhaps now is the time to make a major change. This could be a good thing- the truth is, job unhappiness is often a major cause of mental and physical distress and could have a wide range of negative effects on our health and well-being.According to a recent Huffington Post blog post by Alexander Kjerulf, founder and Chief Happiness Officer of Woohoo inc, â€Å"Way too many people hate their jobs. Exactly how many is hard to say, but depending on which study you believe, somewhere between 20 percent and 40 percent of empl oyees are miserable at work.† Kjerulf goes on to say that hating your job can weaken your immune system, make you gain weight, rob you of sleep, ruin your personal relationships, and even increase your risk of serious illness. Not a good way to ring in the New Year!So, if you’re eager to make a major job or career change†¦ you guessed it, make a plan. Consider making a list of pros and cons for taking the plunge. If everything in your life is pointing to making a major change, figure out what new goal makes the most sense for you. Take an inventory of your skills and experience, along with your interests and aspirations, and figure out which careers/industries you best align with. Do you have any friends or family who have jobs that sound potentially intriguing to you? If so, ask them more about it. Do your research- the Internet is a great source of information for researching new companies and careers.Although making a big career change can be a wonderful moment in your life, acting impulsively could really backfire. There are countless stories of people who made quick decisions to leave their current working worlds for new ones, only to discover that they were ill-informed and really had no idea what they were getting into and wound up being just as unhappy- or even unhappier- as they were before. Don’t become just another unfortunate member of this group. Plan wisely and carefully, and you’ll be setting yourself up for a real shot at positive and lasting change.I want to build new job skills.This is a great goal for most of us and can really help put you in a better position to achieve the other resolutions on this list in the future- getting a promotion or a new job, or even changing industries. And even if none of these goals are in your immediate future, acquiring new skills can be a rewarding and fulfilling enterprise on its own and help us feel more empowered and effective in our current positions.If you’re looki ng to acquire new job skills in the new year, consider the following. Do you want to acquire skills that will make you more effective at your current job or a new one? Your answer to this question will help you determine which skills you should look at. Also, are you looking to invest money towards acquiring new skills? If so, there are a wealth of career and adult education/skill-development programs available across the country; a great place to start is researching the offerings at colleges and universities in your area. You’ll likely come across a wealth of options, both in class and online- you just need to decide which are right for you.If money is an issue and you’re looking for a more cost-effective approach, there are some great free and low-cost options online. One great resource is Skillshare, an online learning community created, maintained, and curated by veterans and experts in their respective fields who are dedicated to teaching others the skills theyâ €™ve acquired.Here’s the bottom line- many folks who are unhappy with their work lives or who are just eager for a fresh start or new challenge take the new year as an opportunity to make a change, and it’s a great time to do so! Because so many people are focused on career changes at the beginning of a new year, many companies and industries ramp up their hiring during this time- and those among us who are serious and dedicated can take full advantage of this reality. If this sounds like you, perhaps now is a great time to move forward- but do so wisely and plan accordingly. Good luck and Happy New Year!

Monday, October 21, 2019

why smoking is hazordous essays

why smoking is hazordous essays In this report I will tell you the dangers of smoking. Smoking is one of the most preventable causes of death in our society. About one in five deaths in the US are results from using tobacco. More then half of all tobacco uses die much earlier then their normal life expectancy. Smokers could be losing an average of 20 to 25 years of their life. Smoking has numerous other effects as well. It leaves you reeking of smoke, yellows your teeth and hands, can give u respiratory and cardiovascular problems, and cause you to leave on the street due to the fact that your broke. Smoking is an expensive habit. The average cost of a pack is $3.00 and the average smoker smokes a pack a day. In one year thats wasting about $1095 or more a year! Thats a lot of money. The Tobacco industry makes billions of dollars each year off addicted smokers. The company adds nicotine, which is addictive to their cigarettes to try and prevent you from not buying their products. The nicotine can raise your blood pressure, heart rate, and the oxygen demand for muscles, mainly in the heart. This causes you to need deeper breaths after running or physical exercise and lessens your ability to perform well during sport activities. Second-hand smoke also affects others as well as you. Secondhand smoke comes from two places; smoke breathed out by the person who smokes, and smoke from the end of a burning cigarette. Secondhand smoke causes health effects, including cancer, breathing problems, and asthma. Secondhand smoke contains thousands of chemicals and majority of them are posions. Secondhand smoke is responsible for between 150,000 and 300,000 respiratory infections in infants and children under 18 months. Around the same number of adults occur similar problems each year. About 37,000 non-smokers die each year because of it. A person who doesnt smoke married to a smoker has a 30% greater chance of getting lung cancer than the wife/husband of ...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

How to Write a Scholarship Essay

How to Write a Scholarship Essay One of the most anxious moments of going through the application process for a college would be the scholarship essay part. Many people aren’t sure of how to write a scholarship essay. The whole idea of entering college is quite intimidating to the recent high school graduate. When determining how to write a scholarship essay, one needs to keep in mind that everyone else writing this essay is also just out of high school, and therefore, everyone else is intimidated by the process as well. College may be intimidating but you’re going into this along with everyone else that’s at the same level as you are. Once you have this firmly entrenched in your mind, you’ll have a much easier time determining how to write a scholarship essay. Remember when you are sitting down and thinking of how to write a scholarship essay that many people have failed at this simply because they didn’t take it seriously enough. It’s that simple. These are individuals that may have been on the top of their schools with great grades and achievements but if they didn’t put their minds on the task at hand then they most likely aren’t even in the running against you. So, sit down and put your mind to the task and determine how to write a scholarship essay. The first thing one needs to do before deciding how to write a scholarship essay is to analyze the essay question and understand the motivating factor behind the ones asking the question. Thoroughly understand the question and what they are asking for in the essay. Figure out if the question requires one to do research on a topic or if this is strictly based upon your own personal analysis on a feeling or subject. Then find out everything you can about the organization that is giving out the scholarships. Who are they and what are they all about, why are they giving out scholarships? Once you have this completely analyzed, you’re already halfway there in figuring out how to write a scholarship essay. Now the next process to go through in determining how to write a scholarship essay is to set your goals for writing the essay. Use your knowledge of the organization that is awarding scholarships to set your goals. You want to present your essay in such a way that it portrays you in a positive light and make them realize that you are such an individual who would highly benefit from a scholarship. Now it’s time to develop the basic theme of your essay. As soon as you begin thinking of how to write a scholarship essay, you may already have the theme in mind. For others, it may not be so clear. This is where the goals you’ve set and all the information you’ve been able to glean from the motivation behind the essay question comes into play. By taking all those factors and studying them, your theme for the essay should become clear. The next step in how to write a scholarship essay would be to create an outline. Some may feel that this is a waste of time, as they prefer to write in a free flowing way. This may be true for some but in most cases an outline will help to tie the whole manuscript in a tightly controlled manner. You’ll be able to present your ideas in the proper order and cover all the important areas. By referring to this outline in the process of writing, you’ll find that you will stay much more organized and focused on the immediate point at that time. Now, the last but most important step in understanding how to write a scholarship essay is to edit and rewrite. This is probably the step that will make or break your scholarship essay. For those who take the time to thoroughly read the essay from front to back and not be afraid to slash, edit and rewrite again and again, their work will be the ones that grab someone’s notice. The key, when you are wondering how to write a scholarship essay, is to spend as much time researching the organization behind the scholarship and the essay question itself as writing it.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Catastrophes, Cultures, and the Angry Earth Essay

Catastrophes, Cultures, and the Angry Earth - Essay Example â€Å"The waters came and took our house and all of our belongings. Now we have returned and officials tell us that we can’t rebuild here, our land will be used for something else. This is our land, we want it back, and we want our lives back.† -----Anonymous Survivor in Aceh, 2005 â€Å"We would all love to see Tokyo rebuilt along the lines of Paris or Berlin, but do we have the resources? No! Why should people in rural areas who suffer each year, toil and sweat yet more for those of Tokyo? Rural areas need attention too, they are the foundation of the nation.† -----Japanese Parliamentarian, 1923 Answer: In the course, the main idea being taught revolves around the nature of the human society specifically during the time of catastrophes and disasters. Based on the quotation that introduced the course according to the historian Marc Bloch, calamities are instruments that help see, study, and analyze the nature of human society. This can be attributed to the fact that as a human body, society has the capacity to maintain, to operate, and to defend itself. It also has the capacity to rebuild once it had been destroyed. The only question in the process of coping with the different forms of trials and disasters is the manner by which it can be undertaken. The course is aimed to open the minds of the students to the need for larger and more holistic objectives in the society which can help understand the reason for the need for continuous improvement of the different groups in the society such as political, economic, and social institutions. Due to the continuous exposure to natural disasters, human society had learned to establish ways and means to cope with the effects of calamities and disasters. The lessons of the pasts and the technologies of the present are used as tools to plan and to cope with possible dangers in the future. Discussion of the First Quote: Calamity in Aceh The first quote was expressed by an anonymous survivor in the calamity that affected Aceh in 2005. Based on the quote, aside from the natural calamity which is the flood that affected many lives, there are other issues that hinder the process of recovery and reconstruction. Upon the return of the survivors to their land, officials prohibited reconstruction. Thus, the aside from the fact that the natural calamity took their home, the social and political issues and policies affected their land. There are different issues that can be discussed in the quote since it expressed a view of the different dynamics that can occur in times of disasters. One is the background of the disaster in Aceh. Aceh, formally known as Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (or the State of Aceh, Abode of Peace) is considered as one of the most Islamic region of Indonesia. The culture and traditions of Aceh is strongly based on Islamic principles and practices. For that matter, religion can be considered as one of the guiding view in times of major calamities and natural disasters (Clarke, Fanany, and Kenny, 2010, p. 30). Due to the influence of Islam in the culture of Aceh, it is considered as one of the main context in terms of the study of the event of 2005. The Islamic law, or sharia, is known to affect the post-tsunami state of Aceh resulting to the question on the re construction and rehabilitation efforts in the area. The political policy in the state had been considered as one of the most highlighted factor in the rehabilitation problems since it is the only state in the country that applies Islamic law. The application of religious laws on political context can be considered as a point of continuous criticism since it can greatly affect the road to reconstruction of Aceh (Clarke, Fanany,

Friday, October 18, 2019

Select one Case Study from those supplied Essay

Select one Case Study from those supplied - Essay Example Korsakoff syndrome results from damage of the memory related brain areas (Dudgale, 2010). Therefore Wernicke’s encephalopathy can be called the acute phase and Korsakoff syndrome the chronic phase. Vitamin B1 is responsible for producing energy for the brain by metabolizing glucose. An impairment of this function due to any reason such as thiamine deficiency leads to decreased oxygen supply to the brain especially the thalamus and mammillary bodies and hence causes the brain damage. Mammillary bodies are part of the hypothalamus. There are neuronal connections between the hippocampus and the mammillary bodies. Then the neuronal connections extend from the mammillary bodies to the thalamus and then to the cortex of the brain. Memories are formed in the hippocampus and then stored in the cortex through this route. This is how damage to these areas of the brain in Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome leads to memory loss particularly anterograde amnesia. This means that memories of the distant past are remembered and available, while new memories cannot be formed, thereby leading to immediate forgetting of the recent events. The patient remembers events of the past before the illness but not after he started suffering from Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome (Barry, 2006). Without treatment Wernicke’s Korsakoff syndrome keeps on getting worse and can be life threatening. Its treatment is symptomatic and thus involves controlling the symptoms. In addition thymine is also given. Alcohol consumption maybe stopped. In addition to this drugs like donepezil and rivastigmine are also prescribed. These drugs are used in Alzheimer’s disease, but have been found to work effectively in Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome patients too. Antidepressants which increase levels of serotonin in the brain have been found to be very useful too. In order to prevent Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome, a person should control his drinking problem if he is a heavy drinker. He can

The Future of Policing in America Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Future of Policing in America - Essay Example By way of example, the rate of kids joining gangs has increased. Where Hispanic and Asian girls were once satisfied being the girlfriend of a gang member, now they are starting their own gangs. (Felton, 2008) Additionally, as technology becomes more sophisticated, so does the crimes associated with it. Thus, it can reasonably inferred that with an increase in technology, will come an increase in crime. There are various forms of police technology constantly being developed. The Moller M400 Skycar is perhaps the most impressive. With FAA certification expected before 2009, according to Moller International (n.d.), the first deliveries are expected to take place shortly thereafter. As with all new technologies, the first units will not be cheap. The first 500 production models are currently listed between $1,000,000, and $500,000 depending on the delivery position. After that, if production continues and accelerates, Moller is currently estimating that the M400 will sell for between $50,000 and $80,000. This is far cheaper than current private airplanes, and with much improved performance and safety. But, it has been a long time in coming. With the US military currently interested in its development, a successful production vehicle is viable in the near future. Harman (2000). The information contained in Electronic Crime Scene Investigation-A Guide for First Responders (available free of charge and downloadable from the Department of Justice) helps line cops solve crimes that are computer related. Step by step it explains the basic workings of the computer and provides the names of the various parts that make it work. It does not try to go into the technical aspects of this medium, but keeps it simple for the layman to understand. Not only does it talk about just computers, but really as the title suggests, anything that deals with electronic communication. Criminals are certainly using pagers, cell phones, cordless phones, answering machines, digital cameras and the like to commit there criminal acts. Clearly the whole range of electronic communication and information storing, has got to be looked at by law enforcement as a method that can be used by criminals, to exploit as a tool to victimize. The book explains and identifies the various parts of the computer that should be identified by law enforcement as possible evidence of various electronic criminal acts. The Central Processing Unit, keyboard, mouse and monitor are but a few of the main components of the computer that must be identified by law enforcement officers when engaged in the preliminary investigation of electronic crime. Modems, speakers, fax machines and printers are also additional pieces of equipment that must be identified. The fact that most of these electronic devices have the ability to store information must be part of the knowledge that the preliminary crime scene responder possesses. How to access that information has got to be one of the most important aspects of the investigation. Moreover, knowing that you do not have the expertise to access the information is critical.What role will technology play in crime scene

Theater Art Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Theater Art - Essay Example This is a film that is very much about faith, in particular Larry's faith. He is beset by a series of very difficult and painful personal problems. His wife has left him, his children have problems, at work there are a number of issues. Everything he does goes wrong. He is very much like the character of Job from the Old Testament. He seems to be being made to suffer for the amusement of some supernatural force. Climbing to the roof of his home (albeit for another purpose), he is getting closer to heaven and the gods which control his fate. He is also taking the opportunity to survey his situation and his place in the world from on high. The camera angle is below Larry in this shot. His back is to the camera and he looks awkward and ungainly; indeed, his shirt is tucked in and he is wearing nice shoes, not the kind of outfit one wears to climb on the roof. The sky is a bright, clear blue, but much else in the shot is sterile. The only other object, besides the shingles on the roof, i s the antenna, to Larry's left. Larry is in the centre of the frame and all the lines of the roof lead up to him. He is clearly the heart and soul of this picture. Climbing onto the roof is an important chance for Larry to survey his life. After this frame he looks out on the streets and his neighbours.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Adult Learning and Diversity (Research Paper) Research Paper

Adult Learning and Diversity ( ) - Research Paper Example There need to be a mode of teaching where each student feels involved. The nature at which these frameworks are integrated in a single classroom is what is attributed to improved learning. Diversity exist on two scenarios, they may involve the nature of teaching and students lifestyle. The research will link these diversities to adult learning and will establish how teachers utilize them in providing a well organized learning environment. An analysis will be done based on a controlled experiment in a real classroom scenario. Conclusion will be based on the finding of the experiment. Its interpretation will depend majorly on real life scenarios. The research will be targeting to enhance the student’s perspective of diversity and provide the teachers with guidelines in how they should handle diversity. The success of students in adult education depends on depends on their diversity. Diversity refers to the differences in social status, cultural differences, chronological age, learning style, ethnicity and nationality. Gaff (1989), connected multicultural to the learning process of any given adult facility. He called for collaborative ways in which students are exposed to exiting culture and relating them to western and other world cultures. Teaching various philosophies and performing a comparison enhances the learning process. The nature in which students are exposed to world experiences widens their perception of a given concept. There needs to be an acceptance nature where weakness of a given culture are enhanced and improved upon by existing cultures. Drawing from social and economic resources advances students in demographic diversity (Powell& Kalina, 2009). The end result is the improved thinking skills of students. They are able to critically analyze a concept and think bey ond their cocoons. They become self aware of their surroundings and be able to differentiate core- values and acquire skills to differentiate behaviors

Impact of poverty In Africa Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Impact of poverty In Africa - Term Paper Example These reasons include armed conflicts, corruption, poor leadership, under utility of land and natural resources, lack of education and spread of diseases due to illegal sexual relations. These problems have adversely affected the life of African in the past and it is being affecting continuously at present as well. (Illife, 1987) Lack of economic activity is another cause of poor life style of Africans. Despite all the potentials, the economy could not deliver due to above-mentioned reasons. Therefore, the continent is unable to overcome the menace of poverty. People lack basic health facilities and lack of pure drinking water. High inflation rate and low GDP has troubled African life despite getting financial assistance from big powers (Illife, 1987). Leadership has not made any efforts to start economic progress in order to lift the life of their fellow citizens. Africa is unable to recover from poverty issue in modern era as well. Impact of poverty in Africa, impact on economic de velopment and present poverty situation shall be discussed in this paper. Mismanagement of land has affected the Africa badly. Despite availability of cultivable land south of Sahara desert, local people do not own land. About 80% South African land is owned by the European settlers of 19th century. This prevented the local people from producing agricultural products for themselves. Lack of food resulted in extreme poverty and deprivation in African people. (Illife, 1987) World has given Africa about 500 billion US dollars for poverty alleviation and economic growth in Africa. Unfortunately, large amount of money was invested in weapons and rest could not reach to deserving people due to corruption by government officials. Therefore only small amount has been used for social services, medical, education and jobs. (White & Killick, 2001) Corruption has also aided to miseries of people. Economic activities are nonexistent due to absence of a capital. People are hard pressed to manage food for daily use. Corruption resulted in lack of agricultural and industrial activity. Snatching of food and other commodities is on the rise. Lack of pure drinking water and mixture of sewerage water caused diseases in Africa. Only 2% people manage to get AIDS treatment. Malaria and cholera are also cause of huge death rate of people in Africa. (Fages, 1999) Civil wars and conflicts between countries are main causes of poverty in Africa. Civil wars resulted in shutting down all government services, affecting trade and economy in Sierra Leone and other parts of Africa. (Illife, 1987) Poverty has long lasting influence on economic development. If we see impact of poverty in Africa than the major effect is high birth rate. Although there is general understanding, that economic development helps in decreasing the birth rate but the exact proportion cannot be judged. Without poverty alleviation of economic activity cannot take place. If hunger and starvation of people is not addressed and they are not provided with the basic health facilities than economic growth cannot take a rapid start. Sierra lone is the African territory where hunger and starvation on the rise despite presence of diamond at the Sierra Leone soil. (Fages, 1999) Poverty is related to many other things that have direct impact on economic growth. Lack of education, bad health and insecurity affects the economic growth of a nation. Lack of education results in non-availability of skilled manpower. Unskilled manpower cannot play effective role in economic progress. But there are examples in the world where poverty did not show great influence on econ

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Adult Learning and Diversity (Research Paper) Research Paper

Adult Learning and Diversity ( ) - Research Paper Example There need to be a mode of teaching where each student feels involved. The nature at which these frameworks are integrated in a single classroom is what is attributed to improved learning. Diversity exist on two scenarios, they may involve the nature of teaching and students lifestyle. The research will link these diversities to adult learning and will establish how teachers utilize them in providing a well organized learning environment. An analysis will be done based on a controlled experiment in a real classroom scenario. Conclusion will be based on the finding of the experiment. Its interpretation will depend majorly on real life scenarios. The research will be targeting to enhance the student’s perspective of diversity and provide the teachers with guidelines in how they should handle diversity. The success of students in adult education depends on depends on their diversity. Diversity refers to the differences in social status, cultural differences, chronological age, learning style, ethnicity and nationality. Gaff (1989), connected multicultural to the learning process of any given adult facility. He called for collaborative ways in which students are exposed to exiting culture and relating them to western and other world cultures. Teaching various philosophies and performing a comparison enhances the learning process. The nature in which students are exposed to world experiences widens their perception of a given concept. There needs to be an acceptance nature where weakness of a given culture are enhanced and improved upon by existing cultures. Drawing from social and economic resources advances students in demographic diversity (Powell& Kalina, 2009). The end result is the improved thinking skills of students. They are able to critically analyze a concept and think bey ond their cocoons. They become self aware of their surroundings and be able to differentiate core- values and acquire skills to differentiate behaviors

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Canadian Plays - Einstein's Gift Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Canadian Plays - Einstein's Gift - Essay Example unce his German citizenship and migrate to the United States in 1933, but finally it is his theory of relativity that was made use of to make the atom bomb by the America he had adopted or where he tried to find solace. James Wallert who is Otto in the play and who has been Haber’s assistant for quite a long time is very persuasive in all his dealings. He had helped Haber in all his work but when he did not receive any credit for his actions, he left Haber and joined the opposite party. Haber makes use of his own uncle Ludwig who was supposedly killed in 1874 in Japan by a Samurai warrior. He makes use of these incidents to create a running anecdote for the plays progression. The end of this incident has his Uncle Ludwig and the samurai getting killed by their own weapons. Both Haber and Einstein were long distance friends for a good number of years. Though both of them were scientists they had conflicting views on Science and religion. While one of them believed in pure Science, the other believed in the practicality of Science, One such thing was religion. Though neither of the two were in any way religious, yet they had conflicting ideas on religion. Einstein did not deny his faith but never practiced it either, while Haber used his religion to try to satisfy his ambition by converting himself to Christianity. Though Einstein was not too religious and did not follow his religion well, yet, Haber presented him with the gift of a ‘kippah’ and a prayer shawl. The ‘kippah’ meaning ‘covering’ is the headdress (skull cap) of the Jewish men which according to the Jewish tradition symbolizes ‘moral perfection’ as seen in God Almighty. In the beginning, this tradition of the ‘kippah’ was followed by the Jewish priests but gradually it came to be adopted by even the lay people. The ‘kippah’ now symbolizes piety and an awareness that God is ever present with us and is worn by anyone who reads their Holy Book the ‘Torah’. Einstein has

Monday, October 14, 2019

Advertising And The Sales Promotional Schemes

Advertising And The Sales Promotional Schemes The advertisement done today is far more different then the old era. Now, the emergence of new technology, the growth in the internet usage, rapidly changing environment, changing way of communications, fragmentation of mass markets, growing economies, and globalization has changed the overall marketing to use different other communication mediums and techniques with the old ones (newspapers, TV and Radio). Every day we are bombarded with different advertising messages whether it is on the radio while were driving to work, on television during our favorite programs, or in magazines and newspapers. Advertising has entered every area of our lives, and many of us choose to ignore it on many occasions. This might cause one to ask, can advertising and promotional efforts still are effective if people are so saturated with information? The answer is yes, advertising and promotions can be effective if used properly for targeting the right consumer. One of the main rules in advertising has always been to keep message simple and consistent and repeat it often. It has been shown that people remember advertising if they see it with great frequency, which explains why while watching hours of television one may see the same advertisement two or even three times even more. That way the message will positioned in ones mind. Integrated Marketing Communication One of the most important aspects of advertising and promoting a product or service is consistency. Companies ensure the consistency of their message by coordinating all of their promotional activities. This coordination of activities into a system or strategic plan is referred as integrated marketing communications (IMC). IMC creates a unified message and enhances the effectiveness of reaching the target consumer. Firms will create one message that will be used consistently throughout a marketing campaign. It is important that the promotional strategy also be in alignment with the organizational goals. There are three major aspects of an IMC plan:- Research Creative Aspects Implementation. Research and analysis are used to find the best way to design the product or service the most effective message and media to use and the best means to distribute the product or service at the optimal price. The creative aspect is the actual advertising, copywriting and designing of promotional materials. Implementation is the act of putting the plan together, creating a strategy and seeing it through. Planning an integrated marketing communications plan also means finding target market determining what is unique about the product offering or service providing constructing a positioning strategy for product or service deciding what the best message would be for product and choosing the optimal marketing mix in relation to allowed marketing budget. Ideally an effective IMC campaign will differentiate the product or service from a competitors generate a flow of leads be consistent with and support the overall branding strategy cause the company to have a more prominent place in the market. Communicate the companys experience and knowledge and help to retain existing customers. The Promotional Mix The promotional mix is the use of different advertising and communication channels in a coordinated way to run an effective marketing campaign. These coordinated campaigns are part of an effective integrated marketing communications plan. The four main methods of promotion within the mix are:- Advertising Sales Promotion Personal Selling Public Relations The most important factor in determining the optimal mix is identifying the target market. This can be determined through extensive market research. Once a company knows its target market it can then research its use of various media outlets in order to come up with the best combination of marketing materials to reach the defined target. For example if the target market is stay-at-home moms, an organization might find that television advertisements during certain daytime television shows are most effective for reaching them. If the target market is a young professional, the marketer might find that using billboards in a downtown commercial district and morning drive time radio advertisements are effective for getting the message to this target market. The size of the promotional budget will greatly influence the chosen mix as well. Television advertising can be very costly and therefore may not be a feasible option for a company with a smaller marketing budget at least not during pri me viewing hours on major networks. Often the amount of money a firm spends on promotional activities will be affected by the product life cycle general economic conditions and the competition. The promotional mix may involve a company coordinating its loyalty program with advertising campaigns and a promotional deal. Advertising Advertising is paid communication brought to audiences through different forms of media such as television, radio, newspapers, magazines and billboards. A company uses advertising to inform, persuade or remind its target market of its products or services. Comparative advertising is used to differentiate a companys products in the marketplace from other similar products. For example The Pepsi Challenge campaign was a form of comparative advertising in which consumers were asked to take blind taste tests to see if they could tell the difference between the products. Coca-Cola uses reminder ads to show us how refreshing the beverage can be on a hot day. 1.4. Different Medium of Advertising and Sales Promotion Advertising Mediums There are advantages and disadvantages to each media type and when selecting the advertising mediums to use companies must understand who their target audience is and which the most effective method for reaching them is. Marketers must be able to divide their budgets among the various media resources in order to stretch them the farthest to reach the most customers. Television Television advertising is the leading medium for reaching Indian audiences. Although a very expensive form of advertising, television ads reach the largest percentage of the Indian population at once and can be very appealing due to their visual nature as well as their sound. TV ads can be classified into national, local, and cable advertisements. The type of network chosen will depend on which audience the marketer is trying to reach. If the advertisement is for a local restaurant the company may choose to advertise only on local stations or in local ad space on cable channels or national networks. The time an advertisement is shown is also an important decision that companies must make in order to reach the target audience. Budgetary constraints will also be a factor in choosing time slots for advertisements. Print Advertisements Advertising in newspapers and magazines is another way of reaching customers with a companys message. Print ads are effective because of their visual quality and can be run in many different types of publications. Marketers selling products or services to consumers may choose national publications such as India Today or local newspapers such as the Times of India and Hindustan Times. Businesses trying to sell products or services to other businesses will often advertise in trade publications of the industries they are trying to reach. Companies may also target specialized publications for example a new computer product may be advertised in PC World or another specialty technology publication. Print ads have a longer life than electronic media ads and are good for telling a story about the value of a product or service. Radio Although lacking the visual appeal radio can be an effective medium for reaching target consumers. The average radio listener tunes in for three hours a day and often on a regular basis. When using radio advertisements in marketing mix it is necessary to make sure that the company and product or service is clearly identified. As with television it is also necessary to find the right station for advertising to the target consumer. If your service is a bar for college students you may choose to advertise in the evenings on a college station or an alternative rock station and if your target audience is senior citizens you may advertise on news stations or a talk show. Internet The Internet has become an important electronic medium and its interactive quality is unique. It permits immediacy of purchase and a high level of convenience. It can be personalized and individualized. The Internet and the World Wide Web are becoming essential tools in an integrated marketing plan and effective tools in sustaining customer loyalty and satisfaction. Direct Mail Mailing advertisements or promotions directly to peoples homes is another commonly used method of reaching consumers. Direct mail campaigns can be expensive due to printing and postage costs but these campaigns can be effective if the mailings reach the right consumers. Often companies will purchase lists of consumers or collect data themselves to build a mailing list. The people on these lists will then be sent targeted mailings. Telemarketing The utilization of telemarketing has been greatly affected in India by the recent implementation of the national Do Not Call registry, where millions of Indians signed up to have their telephone numbers removed from telemarketer lists. Internationally however regulations regarding telemarketing vary and it may still be a very effective method of reaching consumers. The downside of telemarketing is that most people do not like the invasiveness of being called at home though unfortunately many mass marketers find the risk of offending non receptive households is offset by the effective results and benefits from these marketing methods. Outdoor and Out of Home The majority of outdoor advertising rupees are spent on billboards. Billboards are a popular way of reaching commuters and consumers in a single geographic location. Other forms of outdoor advertising known as out of home include sports stadium ads, bus shelter posters, or signage on buses and taxis. Advertising Trends A very popular way of getting a message across is using celebrity endorsements. Advertising companies are willing to pay money in order to hire celebrities to represent their brands. Celebrities are part of an advertising message and campaign. Of course using a celebrity spokesperson can be a risk. When choosing a celebrity to endorse products, it is important to find an appropriate match with the product or service. The relationship should be believable. It is also important that the celebrities endorsing the product be credible. They should either have expertise in the field or be trustworthy characters. Sponsorships This is a well-used form of promotion and advertising that allows the company to buy into a sporting event or activity. The amount of investment in a sponsorship can range from an athletic company supporting a college sports team by providing them with brand-name uniforms in order to promote the brand to a company sponsoring a cricket game. For example Pepsi and Coke use to take sponsorship of cricket time to time. Infomercials Another trend in advertising is the infomercial. This is an extended television advertisement and usually runs at off peak hours or on lower-budget television or cable networks. Infomercials are usually at least a half hour long. Some of the most popular items that are sold through infomercials are fitness videos, skin care products and kitchenware. Often they will feature celebrity endorsements and offer products that cannot be purchased in stores. Their low-budget appearance and late-night showing often characterize infomercials. Once the consumer is convinced to purchase the product he or she will then be able to call and order the product over the telephone generating a direct response to the infomercial. Sales Promotion Sales promotion consists of many activities used to sell products. They are activities that give consumers a short-term incentive to make a purchase. Sales promotions are also activities that change the price and value relationship of a product as perceived by the target audience with the possible effect of generating immediate sales. It is possible that a sales promotion can also alter the long term value of the brand by making what might be a premium product more affordable. Sales promotions are generally time-bound programs that require participation on the part of the consumer through either immediate purchase or some other action. The fundamental goals of sales promotion are tactical, strategic and ultimate. The tactical goals are to combat a competitors increase in market share to combat other competitors promotional efforts and to move brands that are either declining, overstocked, damaged or not selling fast enough. The strategic goals are to motivate consumers to switch from a rival brand to increase product consumption to reinforce the marketing communications efforts for the brand and to motivate brand loyalty. The ultimate goal of a sales promotion is to increase sales, profits and market share. There are different channels for sales promotions which include consumer promotions and trade promotions. Consumer Promotions Consumer promotions are geared toward getting consumers to try a companys products. Some examples of consumer promotion activities include coupons, rebates, sampling, sweepstakes, point-of-purchase displays and special packs. Coupons Whether we cut coupons from newspapers and magazines or getting them in the mail, coupons are a very popular form of sales promotion. They are very effective especially in economic downturns for luring people into restaurants or causing them to make repeat purchases of products. E-coupons are another popular form of sales promotion they are extremely effective for luring in customers and are redeemed by 57 percent of the people who click on them. The most popular uses of e-coupons are for sales of groceries, books and health and music products. The disadvantage of coupons is that they do not encourage brand loyalty most consumers who use coupons regularly are willing to switch brands if there is a better discount available. Rebates Rebates are partial refunds that are offered by the manufacturers. Often manufacturers will use mail-in rebates as incentives for purchasing. The consumer must purchase the product at full price and then fill out paperwork and mail in the receipt in order to receive some money back. Rebate programs allow marketers to promote a companys product at a reduced poster bate price also called MRP offering a substantial savings to its customers but also requiring that a set of conditions be met to qualify. Sampling Companies will often send or hand out samples of products in order to attract customers who may not have purchased their products otherwise. Beverage companies may target college students and hand out soft drinks on campuses, or a food company may set up a stand in a grocery store so that consumers can sample their new chips. You may even receive a trial bottle of shampoo in the mail or you may remember receiving the India Online (IOL) CD in the mail offering 100 free hours of Internet access. These are all examples of sampling, and the intention of these promotions is to introduce a new product or service to a consumer in order to generate brand loyalty. Sampling can be a costly method of attracting customers and it often results in wasted distribution however it can be a very effective method for getting consumers to switch brands. Sweepstakes and Contests Sweepstakes and contests are another strategy of sales promotion. Data will be collected from consumers and they will be entered to win a prize. Companies can use the information that they collect from entrants in order to develop a mailing list for future promotional campaigns. Organizations must be sure to print all the guidelines for their sweepstakes or contests in order to avoid legal entanglements. Some of the guidelines companies should follow in order to put on a successful sweepstakes promotion include the following:- Clarify who is eligible Indicate states where the promotion is not valid Declare the termination date of the promotion Clarify random drawing procedures Companies should also detail the prizes disclose the odds of winning declare a deadline for entry and reserve the right to use winners names and photographs for publicity. Point-of-Purchase Displays Point-of-purchase (POP) promotional materials are displays that are set up in stores in order to prominently display products. At a grocery store a POP is usually placed in front of the store, at the end of an aisle, in the aisle or on the shelf. POP displays are very successful due to the fact that many people make last-minute purchasing decisions. Bundling Sometimes companies bundle products together in order to promote a new product or to encourage consumers to try a complementary product such as a free small conditioner bundled with a shampoo purchase or a free disposable razor with a shaving cream purchase. A company may also offer a bonus pack or a special pack with 20 percent more in order to encourage a customer to purchase a product. Give a ways Another strategy used by companies is that of special promotional items to be given away. These may be hats or T-shirts advertising the company or brand. For example, many times credit card Advertising