Saturday, August 31, 2019

Macbeth Act 3 Scene 5 Essay

This scene takes place in a ‘deserted area’ where there is thunder which also parallels with act 1 scene 1 where the witches meet each other with thunder and lightning. The scene establishes the mood of darkness and violence and also creates suspense and eerie atmosphere due to the presence of witches. It begins with Hecate’s monolog where she disapproved the witches for meddling with Macbeth’s future; this passage foreshadows the appearance of the witches to Macbeth along with his downfall. Her anger is shown at the opening of the scene with the use of three rhetorical questions. In the first rhetoric question, Hecate criticizes the witches in a deeming way. In the second rhetoric question the alliteration ‘trade and traffic’ emphasizes her upset tone and in the third rhetoric question she asserts her superiority over the witches â€Å"mistress of your charms, the close contriver of all harms†. Through the metaphor, ‘wayward son’ Hecate gives clues that Macbeth attempted to defy the witches prophecy by trying to destroy Banquo’s line. It also shows his self-centered ambition, and he is called a wayward son because he is not a genuine devotee of witchcraft and only aims to the profit by it. The lines by Hecate give a clear hint that Macbeth’s reliance on the witches is misplaced and that he is doomed. After rebuking the witches for the past errors Hecate commands them to â€Å"make amends† of their folly action. Hecate gives out a feeling of betrayal through the use of her language. She uses rhetorical questions, rhyming couplet, and enjambment which disguises her underline message. Hecate also asks the witches to help her manipulate Macbeth’s emotions and plans to create illusions which will lure Macbeth into a false sense of security. Hecate’s speech is ironical when she says that the witches tempted Macbeth by saying riddles when they actually prophesied to Macbeth. Euphemism is used in the terms glory of art and great business to refer to the witches plan of destroying Macbeth. The great business also refers to the major illusion that they are going to destroy Macbeth. Imagery is used in the scene were a vivid description of the scheme of the witches plan is described â€Å"there hangs a vap’rous drop profound; I’ll catch it ere it come to ground;† Hecate intends to lead Macbeth to his doom and distraction by magic spells which will conjure up powerful apparitions that will be able to lead Macbeth to his ultimate doom. As a result Macbeth will defy fate and death and will ignore all warnings of wisdom and fear of consequences â€Å"security is mortals’ chiefest enemy†, Hecate says that overconfidence is the greatest enemy of man as by depriving of his own wisdom and making him complacent, it sends him to the path of ruin and destruction. These captivating lines encapsulates the fascinating rituals of which craft.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Insert Surname

Fear is one aspects of human life that can make or break the life of a hero. Being a leader entails a lot in ones life and there are various things that come with leadership. In the ancient set up, leaders normally went to war and they had to come back home having fulfilled their mission. While away, they met or rather faced several challenges that made them either strong or fade away. Kingdoms were founded on the major aspects of how strong ones army was. Gilgamesh was a real person being one of the leaders of the proto-literate Uruk.The life and achievements of Gilgamesh illustrates the importance of striving for the best as well as the values of overcoming fear of death. Gilgamesh goes out to a mission and encounters major magic helpers then later comes home to his community with major benefits to the community. To be a hero takes a lot in the human life. A leader has to be very daring. He has to meet many things that are really challenging. If a leader is not strong enough, his o r her people will suffer to oblivion and thus the essence of heroism comes in.Gilgamesh in this epic is described as a great hero who was fearless and had to face a lot for his people (Sandars 21). He is described as one person who was really fearless and met the extremes of human experiences for the benefit of his lovely community. During his expedition, he experienced magnificence and at the same time went through a lot of human existence extremes. This is clearly elaborated in this sweet story of the ancient times. Gilgamesh was two-thirds god and this is one of the rare parentages of the ancient times. People like Achilles were the only caliber of people who had this kind of special parentage.Before his actualization of the heroism in him, Gilgamesh spends most of the time engaging in non-profitable things like taking away other people’s wives. He later reasons and learns that he ought to do a lot for his community that is beneficial. He goes out to fight and kill monster s so that the world can be restored (Sandars 77). Fear is one thing that can make a great people to be reduced to nothing. It takes a brave leader like Gilgamesh to stand out of the crowd and do something that will outlive them and live to the generations to come.The things that Gilgamesh has to go through in the woods while in his mission demand for a brave man. It would be useless for him to get to the woods if he were a coward. The woods were very thick and it would only take a brave man to pursue this great mission. We can compare this great hero with other heroes in the ancient times. Achilles was one such hero who chose a short life with glory than a long one with glory. It took one to in the ancient world to fight in the front line so that they could be termed great heroes.Achilles really made this realization for he accomplished his mission in the battle fields and he is in the top list of the ancient heroes. This was the kind of heroic codes that were highly revered to in t he ancient times. It is very clear how Gilgamesh is determined and not scared by the monsters even after he witnesses the death of his friend Enkindu. In spite of the many dangers in the woods, Gilgamesh goes beyond the normal limits to realize the immortality (Sandars 118). His divine parentage makes him the brave man he is and this makes him bring glory to the community he belonged .The above clearly tells us that fear is a great threat to human condition. When fear grips humans, there are many things that cannot be realized. Naturally, human condition is filled with fear and it takes only the brave to stand out of the crowd and do the most desirable. If Gilgamesh had been filled with fear, the great things he did for his community would not be realized. His community would never be recognized as great and his name would not be remembered at all. The text relates to real life in that we basically use literature and hidden meanings to express contagious issues; witchcraft, death an d spirits.Gilgamesh comes out as the character that is making the text meaningful, since he helps in developing the plots of the text; he appears most often in the text (Sandars 62). The ability to overcome fear of any form is the beginning of success to the human endeavors. It is with great courage that a person can conquer and make the people that come after him or her to enjoy the benefits of the great works accomplished. Gilgamesh’s extra-ordinary determination to achieve is a proof beyond doubt. Work Cited Sandars, N. K. The Epic of Gilgamesh: An English version with introduction. United Kingdom, Penguin Classics Publishers, 2003.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Marketing Engineering – Ford Hotel

Curso: Analisis Cuantitativo y Toma de decisiones: Fecha: 09 Marzo 2013 Integrantes: – Monica Calderon – Monica Chavez – Monica Escobar – Julio Jaramillo – Sandra Saco Vertiz Case 3: Positioning the Infiniti G20 EXERCISES 1. Using the data in Exhibit 1 and the associated perceptual mapping software, describe the two (or, if applicable, three) dimensions underlying the perceptual maps that you generated. Based on these maps, how do people in this market perceive the Infiniti G20 compared with its competitors? El G20 es visto como un automovil atractivo y exitoso.Muy bien posicionado junto a otras marcas de la gama como BMW y Honda 2. Infiniti promoted the G20 as a Japanese car (basic version $17,500) with a German feel, basically a car that was like the BMW 318i ($20,000), but lower priced. Is this a credible claim, given the perceptions and preferences of the respondents? Los 2 principales competidores del G20 son BMW 318i and the Honda Prelude. Es una dificil tarea promocionar el G20 sobre el BMW 318i en alto prestigio y atractivo; este ultimo punto punto es subjetivo y los gustos del publico pueden cambiar facilmente.El prestigio del auto puede ser promocionado, pero con menor precio del G20 vs BMW, el publico podria percibir que el auto mas caro es el que mas prestigio tiene. De acuerdo a la data y en comparacion con el BMW 318i, el G20 tiene menor precio, elevado ahorro en combustible y larga garantia. Promocionar estos puntos del mercado el G20 tiene un gran valor sobre el BMW 318i es la mejor solucion y puede ser muy bien apreciado por los consumidores. 3. Which attributes are most important in influencing preference for these cars in the three segments (S1, S2 and S3) shown on these maps?To which segment(s) would you market the Infiniti G20? How would you reposition the Infiniti G20 to best suit the chosen segment(s)? Briefly describe the marketing program you would use to target the chosen segment(s). Los mas important es atributos por segmento son: Segment 1 (S1): Hi Prestige, Quiet, Interesting, and Common. Segment 2 (S2): Roomy, Easy Service, and Sporty. Segment 3 (S3): Unreliable, Poor value and Poorly built. El mercado para Infiniti G20 serian los segments 1 and 2, porque ellos aparecen como el modelo ideal de clientes para Infiniti.Ellos comparten las mismas cualidades y estilo de auto que estamos produciendo. Adicionalmente podriamos reposicionar el G20 como lujoso, deportivo, confortable, logrando satisfacer los requerimientos del consumidor de ambos segmentos. 4. What ongoing research program would you recommend to Infiniti to improve its evaluation of its segmentation of the market and positioning of its G20? Podria recomendar a Infiniti invertir mas tiempo concentrando o mejorando los atributos menos valorados por los consumidores, a la vez que podria encontrar la forma de hacerlos mas economicos e interesantes.Ayudando tanto a mejorar su produccion, costos y a la vez mejorar la percepc ion del producto de parte de los clientes. 5. Summarize the advantages and limitations of the software provided for this application. Consideramos una limitante que el programe no brinde una explicacion de los resultados, o una interpretacion de los escenarios. Como ventaja podemos considerar que nos permite visualizar el impacto de cada uno de los atributos en el consumidor, y en base a esa informacion ofrecer mejoras en el producto final. Case 4: Forte Hotel DesignEXERCISES 1. Design: Using a blank Excel spreadsheet, follow Step 1 in the Conjoint Tutorial and develop a Study Design Template (ME>XL==>Conjoint==>Create Study Design Template) for Forte, using the attributes and levels from Exhibit 1. Next, follow Step 2 in the Tutorial, Create a data collection instrument, selecting â€Å"Ratings† method and â€Å"1† for the number of respondents (you). When you are done, check to be sure that your sheet looks like the â€Å"Forte Hotel Data (Conjoint, 1 Ratings)† data set in My Marketing Engineering.Then, briefly summarize the advantages and limitations of describing products as bundles of attribute options. En este ejercicio creamos los atributos y los diferentes niveles de cada atributo, familiarizandonos con el uso de la herramienta. 2. Utility assessment: Using the sheet that you created in Question 1, rate each of the bundles, giving your most preferred bundle â€Å"100† and your least preferred bundle â€Å"0,† as described in Step 3 in the Tutorial.When you are done, follow Step 4 in the Tutorial and perform a utility assessment for yourself (ME>XL==>Conjoint==>Create Study Design Template>>Estimate Preference Part Worths). Interpret your own preferences on the resulting Part Worths Sheet. Como resultado del ejercicio Podemos interpretar que Monica prefiere la habitacion con un escritorio y prioriza el telefono al internet. Desea entretenimiento exterior para practicar actividades deportivas. Le encanta la limpieza per sonal y desea sus zapatos bien lustrados.Tambien prefiera acercarse al restaurant al delivery. 3. Open the â€Å"Forte Hotel Data (Conjoint, 2 Partworths)† data set in My Marketing Engineering and review the Partworths developed from the respondents in this case. Based on your experiences in completing these tasks, summarize the advantages and limitations of conjoint analysis for obtaining preference data from customers. Respondents' Preference Partworths Respondents' preference partworths. The most preferred profiles sum up to 100, the least preferred to 0.Respondents / Small Suite Large Room Room Office Internet access Speaker phone Attributes and Levels 0 9 11 52 13 Amanda 10 37 0 0 9 Ann 26 0 10 21 0 Bruce 8 0 22 13 25 Byron 34 0 30 0 16 Byung 45 0 16 0 2 Colleen 17 7 0 7 24 Courtney 15 0 12 0 14 Daniel 13 0 24 10 23 Dierdre 11 20 0 9 0 Elio 0 27 7 4 0 Eugene 8 0 31 8 0 Frank 20 0 14 0 7 Gabriel 0 19 5 10 22 George 14 31 0 14 0 Gina 6 16 0 0 16 Hans 0 7 47 0 8 Hector 34 0 16 6 27 Jin Hyuk Room fax 0 3 14 0 11 0 0 38 0 19 2 10 21 0 13 9 25 0 Ventajas: Permite identificar la combinacion de atributos preferidos por los consumidores.Explotar los atributos preferidos o mas valorados con un adecuado plan de marketing. Permite caracterizar perfiles de los clientes y asi poder enfocar mejor nuestras ofertas. Limitaciones: No podemos segmentar completamente a nuestra oferta hacia el consumidor (salvo que la base sea estadisticamente robusta). Requiere de un analisis cualitativo previa para identificar las variables a considerar. 4. Analysis: Open the Forte Hotel Data (Conjoint, 3 Analysis) data set in My Marketing Engineering, which has competed Steps 5 and 6 in the Tutorial for you.Follow Step 7 in the Tutorial, ((ME>XL==>Conjoint==>Run Analysis) and assess the viability of the four specific hotel concepts that Forte is exploring for the State College area. Base this evaluation on the preferences of a sample of 40 business travelers on that sheet (Exhibit 2 ) and the cost estimates summarized in Exhibit 3. The base cost to build each hotel room (without the attributes and options listed in Exhibit 3) is expected to be about $40,000 for a 150- to 200-room hotel, regardless of the mix of room types. . Identify the optimal product concept from among those Forte is considering. Explain how you arrived at your recommendation. Consideramos que optimal product 1 es el concepto que deberia considerar Forte porque este le permitira una mejor penetracion en el mercado, lo cual ademas de traer la mayor aceptacion redundara en un pronto recupero de la inversion. 6. Would you recommend product concepts other than the four Forte is considering for the State College market? Explain how you arrived at your recommendation(s).Las 4 opciones engloban el tipo de cliente que normalmente tienen este tipo de cadena de hoteles con lo cual la segmentacion esta muy bien aplicada; sin embargo podrian agregar una opcion enfocada a empresas, BtoB, que esten intere sadas en utilizar el hotel como centro de convenciones que duren uno o mas dias y la empresa contratante deba hospedar a sus invitados, si bien es cierto, no es constante todo el ano, podrian tener preparada una opcion con servicios estandar y ciertos entretenimientos. Podria llamarse Business 1. 7. Summarize the major advantages and limitations of a conjoint study for new roduct design. What conditions favor the use of this approach in the hotel industry? (Consider such factors as types of customers and market conditions in responding to this question). Este modelo le permite a la industria hotelera saber la valoracion del mix e atributos valorados por el cliente y de esta forma tener una propuesta enfocada en el publico objetivo al que se dirige, ademas le permite saber, en la medida que disponga de informacion de los otros hoteles, en que segmento tendria mayores probabilidad de tener una mejor aceptacion.Sin embargo el uso de esta herramienta requeriria de un alto costo de inver sion inicial en investigacion de mercados, ya que exigiria la realizacion de una encuesta que permita contar con datos para la evaluacion. Case 5: Durr Environmental, Inc. – Air Pollution Control Systems Durr faced the following questions: 1. Is it economically sensible to enter the US market? 2. If so, what would be the best offering to make? 3. Would it be better to provide two different offerings? If so, what should they be? 4.Which segment(s) of the customers should they target, with what selling proposition for their new offering(s)? Provide a business case to address these issues. Assume the following: The business must generate marginal revenue of $4MM/year to justify entry, and it will cost Durr an additional $3MM/year to support a second offering. 1. Modelo de Negocio: Tamano del Mercado * Participacion del Mercado *Margen de Contribucion Segun la premisa debemos justificar mas de US $4MM para justificar la entrada al mercado.Tamano del Mercado: Market research indic ated that there would be about 300 units of that size sold in the US each year over the next decade. Participacion del mercado Margen de Utilidad: Producto Servair= 200K + 200K + 10K + 70K – 300K = US $180K Producto Premier= 200K+200K-170K+0+0= US $230K Producto Base =200K+0+0+0=US $200K Conclusion: Para Servair ==> 300 * 0. 1877 * 180 = US $10. 1 MM Para Premier = 300 * 0. 1433 * 230= US $9. 8 MM Para Base = 300 * 0. 0889 * 200=US $5. 3 MMDado que los 3 escenarios son mayores a los US $ 4MM, podemos ingresar al mercado con cualquiera de los productos. Cada uno de ellos nos permitira mayor o menor ganancia segun nuestra apuesta. 2. If so, what would be the best offering to make? Luego analizamos por cada tipo de producto. Segmentamos por Producto 1: Y ahora segmentamos por Producto 2: Sugerimos el producto Premier DX porque tiene mayor probabilidad de aceptacion y por ende nos permite ganar mercado mas rapido. Maximizar beneficios y asegurarnos posicionamiento de marca. . Wou ld it be better to provide two different offerings? If so, what should they be? Recomendamos ingresar solamente con el producto Premier, dado que lograriamos mayor participacion de mercado, un mayor nivel de beneficios e incluso eliminar un competidor. Sin embargo, si quisieramos incorporar un segundo producto sugerimos que sea el primero, pues pese a tener una menor contribucion marginal que el tercero tendriamos mayor probabilidad de aceptacion y por lo tanto tendriamos menor exposicion al riesgo. . Which segment(s) of the customers should they target, with what selling proposition for their new offering(s)? Podrian ser empresas que tienen un alto sentido de responsabilidad con el medio ambiente y desean ejercer control del sistema de emision de gases de manera eficiente. Prefieren invertir en un buen sistema y asegurar un contrato de servicio, para evitar quedarse sin soporte ante algun inconveniente.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Critical Analysis 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Critical Analysis 2 - Essay Example Some rationalist ideas and the remnants of Puritan ideas are seen in the Declaration of Independence. Thesis Statement: The purpose of this paper is explain three examples of Rationalist and remnants of Puritan ideas in the Declaration. Whether Puritan ideas seem to be in conflict with Rationalist elements will be investigated.The works of Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine, John Locke and Thomas Hobbes will be referred to. Rationalism is a philosophic belief in natural rights which is perceived and applied by individuals with the help of reasoning powers (Hill 74). Puritanism, on the other hand, is marked by rigid beliefs on living a pure life devoid of indulgence, and a Christian life in the quest of Godliness and the establishment of the truth of God. The period of Enlightenment (1650 to 1800) believed to be an age of rationalism, evolved from the humanistic changes in religious beliefs of the earlier period and the emergence of puritanism. Puritanism began with Protestant reforms in the early sixteenth century to purify the Church and society of corruption and dogma (Cody & Landlow, 1988). Puritanism was the philosophy of life â€Å"which was carried to New England by the first settlers in the early seventeenth century† (Miller & Johnson 1). Thomas Jefferson’s concept of rationality included the belief in natural rights and an innate moral sense common to all people. One example of rationalist idea in the Declaration is Jefferson’s attack on the practice of slavery in the first draft of the Declaration of Independence. He stated that slavery did not follow the natural law of right to freedom which was a basic human right (Hill 82). Another example of a rationalist idea is that â€Å"all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness† (U.S. History 2009). This should mean equal treatment of Africans with white settlers. However,

Social Service Worker Program to Deal with Oppression Research Paper

Social Service Worker Program to Deal with Oppression - Research Paper Example This research paper investigates the oppression of women domestic workers in Canada, the consequences of this oppression and how social services can be improved upon by analyzing a number of articles on the relevant topic. Stasiulis and Baken in an article titled "Negotiating citizenship: the case of foreign domestic workers in Canada", discuss the concept of citizenship as a negotiated entity and have used the example of foreign domestic workers in Canada as a means to demonstrate that citizenship is negotiated on global and national levels. They stated that because these domestic workers in Canada are often not citizens of Canada; they are colored workers originating from different countries but they work for predominantly white and affluent Canadian women. So they are often subjected to abusive conditions at work. The authors have pointed out that in the new era of globalization, the principles of Keynesianism which were in favor of expanding the social services network, have given way to a need for a higher level of competitiveness in order to succeed in the marketplace. Therefore, many Governments are re-formulating the concept of citizenship. Stasiulis and Baken have dealt specifically with the issue of oppression of domestic workers in Canada and how their non-citizenship status has contributed to their oppression and suffering. They point out that the notion of citizenship itself may need to be renegotiated, away from its earlier view of the relationship between a single individual and the nation state.

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

The Cost of Computers Over 10 Years Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

The Cost of Computers Over 10 Years - Essay Example (Moore, 1965). Simply put, computers have been getting exponentially more powerful since their invention. How is this important to an economic analysis of computer costs? For many years this has been a simple formula for predicting the future cost and efficiency of computers. If we compare the specifications of a computer to what consumers require in order to complete tasks, run software, surf the Internet, and much more, we can see that the advancement of integrated circuits is much faster than the requirement of users. For example, if a student required a computer 10 years ago research, write papers, surf the internet, and communicate, a standard pc of that era would be perfectly suitable. The same student today would require a computer able to perform very similar tasks to the computer of 10 years ago, ignoring the need for graphical gaming and media. Therefore, a computer with the same specifications today and one 10 years ago, or even 1 year ago, can be created with less transis tors, meaning the cost of production is less too. The second law that applies to our analysis is Metcalfe's Law. Robert Metcalfe, the inventor of Ethernet, stated that the value of a network is proportional to the square of the number of connected users of that particular system. (Metcalfe, 1993). Originally talking about telecommunications networks, this law can be applied in general to the Internet – a huge, if not the biggest, driving force of the computer. Simply put, it means that every one new user added to a particular network adds more value to that network. A common example of this is the fax machine comparison. â€Å"The first person to buy a fax machine was a fool.† (Metcalfe, 1993) A user would find it quite pointless to send themselves a fax and having no recipient,... This paper approves that the last factor regarding supply and demand is the substitution effect and alternative effect. Although each good is unique, it has substitutes – there are always other goods that can be used in place of it. Twenty years ago, it was very common to write one's letters manually and type script on a typewriter. Ten years ago, the computer was certainly very popular, although many alternatives were considered over owning a personal computer. Typewriters were still in use, Internet cafes were popular, and sharing computers was considered quite acceptable. Today, we can observe that the demand for typewriters has decreased, as it is an inferior substitute. Furthermore, the supply of typewriters is also reduced, as it is comparatively more expensive to produce than computers. In the same way, personal computers are affordable, resulting in a reduction in Internet cafes and computer sharing. Cost plays a vital role in determining which products a buyer will su bstitute in order to maintain viability. This report makes a conclusion that we can observe the many forces that have attributed to the success of the personal computer and laptop. We can perhaps look to our formula, laws, and economic models to predict the cost of the computer, or technological equivalent, in the future. Although, if in this short span of time computers have become such a ubiquitous part of our daily lives, we can only wonder as to the extent of influence it will have on us in the next 10 years.

Monday, August 26, 2019

Volunteer Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Volunteer - Essay Example Therefore the workplace if full of aged workers who believe that they should be the ones in leadership positions since they have many years of experience. As a result, young managers get a difficult time supervising employees who are unhappy with the leadership structures in the firm. Hence, by choosing to clean an old person’s home, I expected I would learn a few skills on how to work with the aged. The day of the volunteering experience was quite eventful. We were a small group of five students. At first, I thought we were too many for a simple task. However, the house was quite big with a sizable yard. We assembled outside the house until everyone had arrived. When everyone was present, we knocked on the door and an elderly woman, Natalie, welcomed us in. The couple took us round the house and orientated us to the place after exchanging pleasantries. Even though they were specific about the areas to clean, we ended up identifying many other dirty places to clean. After the orientation, we sat down and planned the activities of the day. We divided ourselves into three groups of two members each. Some of us would clean the roof and repair the fence. Some would mow the lawn and help the first group when done. The remaining two would work in the house with Natalie, to clean the shelves, counters, sinks, and the washroom. Peter, one of the other volunteers, and I remained indoors to clean the house. We took a half an hour break after cleaning for three hours nonstop. During the break, Natalie was kind enough and served us coffee. After the break, we embarked on cleaning the house. Peter and I started by cleaning the sinks. Later, we moved to the shelves, and lastly we worked on the counters. We also dusted the chairs though it was not on the schedule. By the time we were finishing, the yard group had also completed their work. I managed to meet all my three learning objectives for the

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Change Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Change - Essay Example As such, hospitals have shifted their conventional approach where they were run on voluntarism basis to a more contemporary and competitive approach. This approach has seen many hospitals corporatize their services thereby adopting normal organizational management approaches and strategies like change management. It is important to note that in their pursuit of organizational strategizing many of them have closed down while others have survived the competition. Majority of those which have closed down have done so as a result of inefficient management, others have created barriers for all patients to access medical care. In the workplace there is need for change management to take place in respect to number of staff. The hospital is operating quite inefficiently as a result of having an unnecessary high number of staff. Redundancy creeps in where many workers are doing the same thing without creativity or level of innovation. Considering the number of both outpatients and inpatients the available manpower is way above the optimum which results in wastage of time. This also results in wastage of finances which could otherwise be used to improve on quality of medical care provided. In order to ensure that all employees work optimally and to reduce on cost of operations, a downsizing plan is necessary (Schulz & Johnson, 2003). When considering the Lewin’s Force Field Analysis driving forces and restraining forces have three major elements each. Downsizing strategy/ Lewin’s Force Field Analysis This is a measure that is quite sensitive in many organizations as labor unions and other restraining forces play crucial roles. It is also referred to as restructuring or reorganizing. It is complex to implement as it also requires restructuring of job designations, change in departments and their consolidations among others (Cohn & Hough, 2008). Although highly unpopular this strategy has worked for many corporate organizations like GM and IBM. Since hospital s have adopted corporate measures in management then change strategies cannot be blind to downsizing. One of the driving forces is cost saving which is the most obvious of all benefits. Due to the increased pressure for hospitals to be self reliant and increased control of care plans the hospital needs to cut down on its cost of operations (Mason, Leavitt & Chaffee, 2007). This subsequently creates an internal pool of resources which are in turn used to improve on services offered. The economic condition is not at its best with many sectors still recovering from the recent 2007-09 global economic meltdown. The other force is improved efficiency especially by targeting employees whose jobs do not contribute directly to revenues and which do not heavily affect the hospital’s core operations. The strategy will also help in weeding out poor performers and retain highly skilled employees. Efficiency is also derived when the few remaining employees focus their energy towards core d uties of the hospital. There is also shorter communication channels and improved responsiveness. This way bureaucracy is eliminated resulting to a more flat command structure. The third major force is labor mobility which benefits the hospital in an indirect way. In case many employees will be found to be non performers it will be relatively easy to hire new ones coming from inefficient or closed hospitals. On the other hand there are competing forces that

Saturday, August 24, 2019

TD 5 MGT 491 Integration and Reflection Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

TD 5 MGT 491 Integration and Reflection - Essay Example This approach chains HR systems to staff’s assisting actions. Two widely discussed prototypes of HR systems with well-defined objectives include the compliance and commitment systems. These systems can impact organizations in different ways. Compliance system, staff is monitored and controlled by a set of rules and regulations. This is assumed to motivate and benefit them. Employees are seen as an unnecessary expense and are kept to a minimum to cut on costs and improve efficiency. Adherence to company’s goals is achieved by setting well specified rules and procedures. Commitment systems, on the other hand, is focused on the employee wellbeing. Employees are seen as capable and highly motivated. The employees are required to act in ways favorable to the collectivity. In this system however, there is a thin line between self and others as employees’ behaviors’ are geared towards getting ahead and obtaining benefits from the organization as a collectivity.(Kevin, Hettie, & Randall, 2011) I would advise the senior management to choose the commitment system which is broadly mutual rather than the compliance system which is control oriented and market driven. Employees are necessary for an organization to flourish therefore, goal oriented relationships between employees and the organization is necessary. With the commitment system in place, the employees’ specific contributions can be assessed and fully realized as there will be full acceptance of the organization’s target unlikely to be achieved through a set of rules and regulations as used in the compliance system. A compliance system focuses on trends in market prices while commitment HR system will focus on sustaining a communal sharing which will enhance team work and yield better results for the organization and therefore commitment HR system is the better

Friday, August 23, 2019

Managing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Managing - Essay Example All these will be aimed at engaging with the organization in the closet manner possible so that the quality of data collected would be good enough to answer the question under study. To enhance authenticity of the entire process the process will be carried out in a number of days to avoid jeopardising the normal operations of the organization that would result in skewed information being collected that would not depict the real situation in the firm. Research ethics will be given priority through the entire process and in that light the study will be conducted with objectivity as I will try to avoid any form of bias in the experimental design that might tend to depict the firm in a negative manner. Data integrity will be highly observed as all the information sourced from the employees and the management will only be used for the purpose of the research and no other intention whatsoever. Confidentiality of classified data will also be maintained, and the information about the organization will not be published or exposed to third parties without prior consent of the management of Qvc Inc. Finally, the research will observe respect for intellectual property, and any scholarly article that will be utilized in the process will have to be acknowledged

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Problems of farmers in present day of Life Essay Example for Free

Problems of farmers in present day of Life Essay We think of farms as always being there. Food will always be grown. Our countryside will be full of cows and crops just like it always has been. The fact is that this may not be true. Farmers are faced with the growing costs to run their farms. These costs include taxes, insurance, and regular farm costs. When we visited a farm, the farmer said that this was one of his main concerns. and not the weather conditions like we thought. Farmers are being offered big money to sell their farms. Companies that are building lots of houses and condominiums buy up farm land so that city people can move into the country. They break up the farm land into smaller pieces of land. In the picture on the right, you will see an example of how housing developments are gradually taking over valuable farm land. With more people traveling and moving into the country, more roads need to be built. Roads take up land, too. Many times the land is farmland. So, the farmer is offered lots of money to sell their land. The high taxes and farm costs make this look good to farmers. Another big threat is roads that go around cities. These are called loops or bypasses. These use up farm land, parks, and green spaces edging our cities. This has had a terrible track record over the past few years, although many mayors and members of Congress now want to build more. As a nation, we should stop giant highways and promote new transportation that helps the economy and the environment. We interviewed former Congressman and former head of the New Jersey Turnpike Authority Neil Gallagher who said, New Jersey used to make awful smells that would spread across the area from a major pig farm in Secaucus. A plan then was made by Governor Al Driscoll to run a highway through New York State to the crossing of the Delaware River to take out the traffic on Highway Number 1. In order to build these roadways, all the roads had to connect and pass through Secaucus which had to be the hub of the highway. In order to do this, the government had to buy all the pig farms in Secaucus. Mr. Gallagher remembers that several laws were passed: A new organization was formed called the New Jersey Turnpike Authority. Creation of an organization that would buy the farms at a fair price. Allowing the turnpike to sell bonds to raise money to buy the land and  build the road. The bonds would be paid for by the tolls that were collected on the turnpike. [Two thirds of the money came from out-of-state drivers.] The result of the New Jersey Turnpike Authority closing down the farms was that we lost the farm land, and the new use of that land resulted in the greatest economic boom that the state of New Jersey had ever seen. The road itself created all new jobs throughout the state and in Secaucus itself. Let’s use the New Jersey Meadowlands sports complex as an example. This land became some of the most valuable land in the metropolitan area when the Meadowlands [including Giant Stadium, the race track, and Continental Arena] was built where pig farms used to be. Mr. Gallagher feels that, â€Å"Sometimes the price of progress is finding a better use of land that benefits more people at the expense of a more rural and quiet way of life. The threat to farming had to be raised for the people of the state. This is one example, but a balance does have to be set from nature and a growing society.† Many people would agree with Mr. Gallagher’s statements and many others would not. No matter where you stand on the loss of valuable farmland to development, you need to always be concerned about the future of our farming communities.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Conflict Resolution Essay Example for Free

Conflict Resolution Essay Merriam-Webster (n.d) defines conflict as, â€Å"the opposition of persons or forces that gives rise to the dramatic action in a drama or fiction†. Interpersonal conflicts, whether they are between family members, students and teachers, employees and supervisors, or groups, have certain elements in common. Coser (1967) asserts that conflict is a struggle over values and claims to scarce status, power, and resources, in which the aims of the opponents are to neutralize, injure, or eliminate the rivals. (p. 8) Coser’s definition grew out of the cold war, when conflict between the United States and the former U. S.S.R. dominated Western method to conflict. Conflict was viewed as a win-lose solution. According to Dana (2001) there are only three ways to resolve any conflict; power contests, rights contests, and interest’s reconciliation. Power contest is based on Coser’s (1967) win-lose situation. Each party views their point as right each wanting power over the other. Rights contest is an orderly system which has rules, regulations, policies, precedents and a hierarchy of authority which is used in order to â€Å"win† again this model is a win-lose resolution. The solution to conflict resolution is interest reconciliation. This approach enlists support from both parties to find the best solution. All parties win with interest reconciliation model as their solution. Conflict in the workplace is a condition between or among two or more workers whose jobs are independent, who feel angry, who perceive the other(s) as being at fault, and act in a way that causes a business problem. Conflict has three elements feelings (emotions), perceptions (thoughts) and actions (behaviors). â€Å"Psychologists consider these three the only dimensions of human experience. So, conflict is rooted in all parts of the human nature† (Dana, 2001, p. 5) some confuse conflict with indecisi on, disagreement, stress, or some other common experience that may cause or be caused by a conflict. However, those elements are not best handled by conflict resolution. The question many ask, is conflict normal? Conflict is a fact of any organizational life. On the job, conflict is a stubborn fact of organizational life (Kolb and Putnam, 1992, p. 311). Rather than seeing conflict as abnormal, Pondy (1992) suggests we view organizations as arenas for staging conflicts, and managers as both fight promoters who organize bouts and as referees who regulate them (p. 259). In addition, Pondy states that in the company, agency, or small business, conflict may be the very essence of what the organization is about, and if conflict isnt happening then the organization has no reason for being (p. 259). One study surveyed workers and found that almost 85 percent reported conflicts at work (Volkema and Bergmann 1989). With an increasing awareness of cultural diversity and gender equity issues, it is essential that employees become familiar with issues surrounding promotions and harassment. In fact, one can see training in organizations as a form of preventive con flict management (Hathaway, 1995). The recognition of the frequency of conflict at work has led to books on mediating conflict in the workplace (Yarbrough and Wilmot 1995), showing how managers can learn conflict management skills to intervene in disputes in their organization. As employees, daily work with clients, customers, co-workers, or bosses can be a struggle. Conflict is as Wilmot (1995) wrote, What determines the course of a relationship . . . is in a large measure determined by how successfully the participants move through conflict episodes (p. 95). Conflict resolution has five styles, giving in, avoiding, fight it out, comprise, and work together style. No style is right or wrong; however some do work better than others. Accommodation, giving in to the others wishes or smoothing waves sacrifices ones own goals for the sake of the other person. Accommodators often use phrases like: Whatever you want is fine with me. When one party in a conflict genuinely does not care about the outcome of the conflict, accommodation may be the right choice for that situation. However, if accommodation is the only style a person utilizes, he or she is advised to learn more skills. Avoidance is characterized by behaviors that either ignore or refuse to engage in the conflict. While avoidance is by some consider a negative style that shows low concern for both ones own and the other partys interests, there are sometimes strategic reasons to avoid conflict. For example, when the relationship is short-term and the issue is not important or when the situation has a potential to escalate to violence, avoidance may be the prudent choice. Fight it out, competition, or win/lose, style maximizes reaching ones own goals or getting the problem solved at the cost of the others goals or feelings. While always choosing competition has negative repercussion s for relationships, businesses and cultures, it can occasionally be the right style to choose if the other party is firmly fixed in a competitive style or there are limited resources. While competitive strategy is not necessarily dysfunctional, competition can easily slip into a destructive situation. Understanding the methods and strategies of others who use competitive styles can assist conflict managers in neutralizing the negative consequences of competition and work toward a mutual gain approach. Compromise is a give and take of resources. The classic compromise in negotiating is to split the difference between two positions. While there is no victor from compromise, each person also fails to achieve her or his original goal. Finally, working together to collaborate is when parties cooperatively team up until a mutually agreeable solution is found. Compromise and collaboration are win-win solution where as the other styles are win-lose. Why do people avoid dealing with conflict? People have a natural instinct of fear and some let that fear overpower them. The fear of harm causes people to fight-or-flight. Individuals will choose the flight option when in a dangerous part of a city that they have never been in before in order to avoid danger, it shows wisdom or strength to get out a of physically abusive relationship, commendable to stay out emotionally abusive relationships. In spite of this, in some cases people have the response to flight to a false perception of harm. People overstress in their minds the emotional harm that someone can cause harm. The same is said for conflict in the workplace, people will avoid conflict for fear of being harmed by others. Some avoid conflict because of a fear of rejection from others. These individuals feel others will withdraw their friendship or push them away causing more hurt. People have the perception if they do not risk rejection they can suppress their needs and feelings. Loss of relationship is the fear of rejection taken up a level they fear totally losing a relationship. Others avoid conflict to mask their true desires because preserving a relationship is more important than getting what they want. These individuals are trapped into believing their worth is dependant on another accepting them. People avoid conflict for fear of anger. These people do not like listening to someone who is angry. They believe another will hurt them, reject them, or leave them, and they just cannot stand to witness anger. However, anger is just anger and it is not necessarily directed toward them. Individuals do not want to be seen as selfish. In some situations people are not afraid of others reactions, but rather their interpretation of the situation. They fear that they will appear selfish. However, is it wrong to have a need, feeling, or want and to express it? Society has sometimes had it seem that way. Although, there is nothing wrong with asking for what individuals want versus feeling they are entitled to always getting what they want. The truth is if one never asks, then they are depriving people around them from being able give to them effectively. Still, people who feel their wants should not be fulfilled, regardless of what others want, fall into the selfishness category. Sometimes people avoid conflict for fear of saying the wrong thing or something they will regret. Individuals will avoid conflict rather than risk putting â€Å"their foot in their mouth† they contain their anger and frustration which often leads to that which they fear. When people have conflicts in the past that have failed so they avoid future conflict for the fear of failing those too and begin to believe the confrontation is not worth the emotional energy it takes to deal with others. The fear of failing can impact other aspects of ones life. The fear of hurting another is more than just saying the wrong thing. These individuals are extremely sensitive and caring. They would rather hurt themselves than risk hurting another. The fear of success is a fear that most over look. However, it is much like the fear of failure. Some people are afraid to get what they want; they believe they will never get it. These people feel they do not deserve what they want, the consequences of getting of what they want is regret, or the responsibility is more than they need or desire. The fear of intimacy is the most subconscious of the fears. People do not want to share their dreams, desires, and wants with others. They feel they are private and do not want to be exposed. People do not want to appear weak. If resolution involves giving in, avoiding, or compromise they may feel they appear as though they do not have confidence. People do not want the stress of confrontation. They feel it is better to avoid conflict rather than deal with the stress it will cause them in the workplace between co-workers. Our society tends to reward alternative responses to conflict, rather than negotiation. People, who aggressively pursue their needs, competing rather than collaborating, are often satisfied by others who prefer to accommodate. Managers and leaders are often rewarded for their aggressive, controlling approaches to problems, rather than taking a more compassionate approach to issues that may seem less decisive to the public or their staffs. Conflict resolution requires profound courage on the part of all parties: It takes courage to honestly and clearly express one’s needs, and it takes coura ge to sit down and listen to one’s adversaries. It takes courage to look at one’s own role in the dispute, and it takes courage to approach others with a sense of empathy, openness and respect for their perspective. Collaborative approaches to conflict management require individuals to engage in the moment of dialogue in thoughtful and meaningful ways, so it is understandable if people tend to avoid such situations until the balance of wisdom tips in favor of negotiation. People have certain perceptions in conflict when dealing with different situations. Culture shapes and frames each individuals interpretation of appropriate behaviors during conflicts. Conflict across cultures, whether across nations or across the diverse cultures within a country, exacerbates the routine difficulties of conflict management (Fry and Bjorkqvist, 1997). There is no clear conclusion about whether men and women actually behave in different ways while conducting conflicts. However, gender stereotypes do affect conflict behaviors when individual s act and react based on stereotypes of how men and women will/should act rather than selecting behaviors appropriate for the individual one is communicating with (Borisoff and Victor, 1997). Parties respond to conflicts on the basis of the knowledge they have about the issue at hand. This includes situation-specific knowledge and general knowledge. The understanding of the knowledge they have can influence the persons willingness to engage in efforts to manage the conflict, either reinforcing confidence to deal with the dilemma or undermining ones willingness to flexibly consider alternatives. The person sharing the message is considered to be the messenger. If the messenger is perceived to be a threat (powerful, scary, unknown, etc.) the message can influence others responses to the overall situation being experienced. For example, if a big scary-looking guy is yelling at people they may respond differently than if a diminutive, calm person would express the same message. Additionally, if the people knew the messenger previously, they might respond differently based upon that prior sense of the person’s credibility. People are more inclined to listen with respect to someone they view more credible than if the message comes from someone who lacks credibility and integrity. Some people have had significant life experiences that continue to influence their perceptions of current situations. These experiences may have left them fearful, lacking trust, and reluctant to take risks. On the other hand, previous experiences may have left them confident, willing to take chances and experience the unknown. Either way, one must acknowledge the role of previous experiences as elements of their perceptual filter in the current dilemma. These factors, along with others, work together to form the perceptual filters through which people experience conflict. As a result, their reactions to the threat and dilemma posed by conflict should be anticipated to include varying understandings of the situation. This also means that they can anticipate that in many conflicts there will be significant misunderstanding of each others perceptions, needs and feelings. These challenges contribute to our emerging sense, during conflict, that the situation is overwhelming and unsolvable. As such, they become critical sources of potential understanding, insight and possibility. How do people respond to conflict? There are three responses to conflict emotional, cognitive and physical responses that are important windows into our experience during conflict, for they frequently tell people more about what is the true source of threat that is perceived; by understanding the thoughts, feelings and behavior to conflict, a better insight into the best potential solution to the situation. Emotional (feelings) are the feelings we experience in conflict, ranging from anger and fear to despair and confusion. Emotional responses are often misunderstood, as people tend to believe that others feel the same as they do. Thus, differing emotional responses are confusing and, at times, threatening. Cognitive (thinking) are our ideas and thoughts about a conflict, often present as inner voices or internal observers in the midst of a situation. Through sub-vocalization (self-talk), people understand these cognitive responses. Physical (behavior) can play an important role in our ability to meet our needs in the conflict. They include heightened stress, bodily tension, increased perspiration, tunnel vision, shallow or accelerated breathing, nausea, and rapid heartbeat. These responses are similar to those we experience in high-anxiety situations, and they may be managed through stress management techniques. Establishing a calmer environment in which emotions can be managed is more likely if the physical response is addressed effectively. Dealing with someone unwilling to negotiate can be difficult for the person who is trying to resolve the conflict. However, the 8 Step Model can be very beneficial, by focusing first on listening to the other person, and seeking to understand the sources of their resistance, the stage can be set for clarifying the conditions he or she requires in order to talk things out. This is not about being right or wrong in the situation, but a practical strategy for getting the other person engaged as a partner in the negotiation process. Another alternative is to focus on things we can do to influence conflicts in the future, rather than putting initial energy into understanding (or solving) problems we have had in the past. By remaining relatively flexible about the agenda taking on topics individuals care about, but not necessarily the most pressing issues – thus, creating an opportunity to reduce the fears associated with resistance. While the conflict may not be able to be truly resolved, some key issues that exist will be managed and will help to prevent the issues from getting worse. Power is an important and complex issue facing anyone seeking a negotiated solution to a conflict. Before negotiating clarify the true sources of power in the room: The boss has position power, associated with the carrots and sticks that come with the role. She or he may also have coercive power, supported by contracts or statute that compels employees to behave in certain ways and do certain tasks associated with the job. Some may have a great deal of expertise power, accumulated from doing your job over a period of time. Either conflict participants may possess normative power, through which they know the lay of the land in their department and, therefore, how to get things done. And either may possess referent power, through which others show respect for the manner in which the employee conducts themselves. Generally, referent power accrues to those who demonstrate a mature willingness to seek collaborative solutions. An impasse is the sense of being stuck. Impasse is the point within a dispute in which the parties are unable to perceive effective solutions. People feel stuck, frustrated, angry, and disillusioned. Therefore, they might either dig their heels in deeper, anchoring themselves in extreme and rigid poitions, or they might decide to withdraw from negotiation. Either way, impasse represents a turning point in our efforts to negotiate a solution to the conflict. As such, rather than avoiding or dreading it, impasse should be viewed with calmness, patience, and respect. Multi-party disputes are complex situations, and they require careful attention and persistence. However, the same 8 Step Model can be applied to the disputes. In spite of using the same process expect everything to take a bit longer than if there where only two or three people. Patiently make sure that all points of view are heard, that issues are clarified for all to see, and that all members in the group accept the agreements being negotiated. If there are limits to the groups decision-making power, then it is important to acknowledge those limits and understand how they are perceived by all members of the group. There are many different ideas of the steps for resolution, some claim five steps while others claim six or seven for the purpose of this paper Weeks (1992) eight step resolution style is identified. Step one – Create an Effective Atmosphere Creating the right atmosphere in which the conflict resolution process will take place is very important, yet most overlook its importance. The atmosphere is the frame around the canvas which will be painted the negotiations and building of better relationships (Weeks, 1992). Step two – Clarify Perceptions Perceptions are lenses through which a person sees themselves, others, their relationships, and the situations they encounter. Perceptions have a great influence on behavior of people. Once people perceive something in certain way, even if the perception is wrong, in the mind it is that way, and often base behaviors on that perception (Weeks, 1992). Step three – Focus on the Individual and Shared Needs This step builds on the previous step as needs as the conditions people perceive they cannot do without, those conditions critical to each persons wellbeing and relationships. However, step three focuses more on skills involved in the conflict partnership approach. There are several key points to keep in mind in this step. 1) Needs are the foundation of relationship and are an essential part of that foundation. 2) People sometimes confuse needs with desires. 3) Personal needs in relationships perceived by individuals must allow for respect of the needs or the relationship (Weeks, 1992). Step four – Build Shared Power Power is a part of every relationship. However, the way people perceive and use power is seen frequently as a dirty word. Such as when people use power as means to control or to manipulate some else to get what they want. Although, power is and of itself not corrupt, it is the way in which people use their power and whether they allow such power to corrupt. Developing positive self power through a clear self-image means that we base our perceptions of ourselves not on what others expect of us or want us to be but what we believe to be our own needs, capabilities, priorities and goals (Weeks, 1992, p. 152). Step five – Look to the Future, Then Learn from the Past. All relationships and conflicts have a past, present and future. Resolving conflicts requires dealing with all three. The conflict partnership process encourages the use of positive power to focus on the present-future to learn from the past. The past experiences people face set the landscape for present and future decision making and how relate to others (Weeks, 1992). Step six – Generate Options People have the ability to discover new possibilities in their relationships as well as conflict resolution. However, both are often impaired by the packaged truths and limited vision people hold onto in times of stress, insecurity, and conflict. Generating options breaks through the predetermined restrictions brought into the conflict resolution process. Generating options imparts choices which specific steps to resolve conflicts and enhanced relationship can be agreed upon (Weeks, 1992). Step seven – Develop â€Å"Doables†: the Stepping-stones to Action Doables are the necessary stepping-stones taken along the way to resolve conflict. Doables are explicit acts that stand a good possibility of success, meet some individual and shared need, and depend on positive power, usually shared power to be carried out. Working on and accomplishing some doables can help the conflict partners see more clearly where they need to go. Many conflict partners have changed their preconceived definitions of both the conflict itself and the expected outcome due to the lessons learned and clarified perceptions through working with doables (Weeks, 1992) Step eight – Make Mutual-Benefit Agreements Mutual-benefit agreements are the next step on the pathway to conflict resolution. Conflict resolution agreements must be realistic and effective enough to survive and the potential to develop further as challenges arise in the future. Mutual-benefit agreements replace the need or want for demands, see the others needs, shared goals, and establish a standard wherein power is identified as positive mutual action through which differences can be dealt with constructively (Weeks, 1992). Conclusion Conflict is an unavoidable aspect of everyday life whether it is with family, teachers, students, friends, or an organization. The best approach to resolving conflict is interest reconciliation. It joins both parties of the dispute to find the best solution. In so doing, all parties win. People respond to conflict in three ways emotional (feelings), cognitive (thinking), and physical (behavior). All are important to the conflict experience. They allow a better awareness to best furnish a solution to the situation. An important tactic to conflict resolution is to develop persuasion skills with the ability to clearly explain one’s point of view and to argue for their conclusions and convictions. Week’s Eight-Step Process is a valuable tool in helping people to become more strategic about resolving conflict. References Borisoff, D., and D. A. Victor., (1997). Conflict management: A communication skills approach, 2nd ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Conflict, (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary Retrieved from Coser, L. A. 1967. Continuities in the study of social conflict. New York: Free Press. Dana, D. (2001). Conflict resolution. New York: Mcgraw-Hill. Fry, D. P., and Bjorkqvist K., (1997). Cultural variation in conflict resolution. Mahwah, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Hathaway, W., (1995). A new way of viewing dispute resolution training. Mediation Quarterly, 13(1), 37-45. doi:10.1002/crq.3900130105 Kolb, D. M., Putnam, L. L. (1992). The Multiple Faces of Conflict in Organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, (3), 311. doi:10.2307/2488478 Pondy, L. R. (1992). Reflections on organizational conflict. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13(3), 257-261. Volkema, R. J., and Bergmann T. J., (1989). Interpersonal conflict at work: an analysis of behavioral responses. Human Relations 42: 757-770. Weeks, D. (1992). The eight essential steps to conflict resolution: preserving relationships at work, at home, and in the community. Los Angeles, J.P. Tarcher; New York: Distributed by St. Martins Press Wilmot, W. W. (1995). Relational communication. New York: McGraw-Hill. Yarbrough, E., and Wilmot W., (1995). Artful mediation: Constructive conflict at work. Boulder, Colo.: Cairns Publishing.

Visual Cortex Involvement in Memory

Visual Cortex Involvement in Memory Is visual cortex involved in memory? Essay type Option 1 [REVIEW OPTION] Là ³pez-Aranda et al. 2009. Role of Layer 6 of V2 Visual Cortex in Object-Recognition Memory, Science 325, 87 Cattaneo et al., 2009. Contrasting early visual cortical activation states casually involved in visual imagery and short term memory Though a lot of information enters the brain, retention does not occur for all of it, and it is considered to be a selective process. One of these retentions is short term memory, also known as working memory. In vision, working memory is interpreted as the maintenance of a whole object, instead of the components of the objects image: orientation, texture, etc. (Super, 2003). Memory retention and formation is typically associated with increased activity in mammalian prefrontal and parietal cortex, with little evidence for activity in sensory areas, beyond of the initial sensory stimulation (Pasternak and Greenlee, 2005). The Multiple Memory Systems is a widely accepted view that sustains that the brain is divided into sections in respect of their own specific function. In this interpretation, the Medial Temporal Lobe (MTL) has a role in memory, particularly in explicit memory function, and includes structures such as the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, parahippocampal cortex, and perirhinal cortex, in addition to the prefrontal cortex (Bussey and Saksida, 2007). However, recent findings have suggested a role of sensory cortex in memory processing: increased brain activity in visual cortex has been found during the short-term retention of visual information after stimulus presentation (Kà ¡ldy and Sigala, 2004). It therefore has been more common to say that visual cortex role goes beyond encoding sensory information and also participates in memory consolidation. This essay reviews two papers in which evidence of the role of visual cortex in memory consolidation is presented by the use of different techniques: 1) Cellular techniques as protein overexpression and immunocytochemistry (Là ³pez-Aranda et al., 2009) and 2) Transcranial magnetic stimulation (Cattaneo et al., 2009) Role of Layer 6 of V2 Visual Cortex in Object-Recognition Memory Using rats as a model, Là ³pez-Aranda et al. (2009) tried to elucidate the specific role of layer 6 in V2, in regards to memory processing and retention. To do this, they utilised two methodologies in a paired-sample experiment (same group tested on two different occasions). One addressed the problem by analysing the overexpression of a certain G-protein regulator (RGS-14) in layer 6 of V2, that acted as a protease, and which permitted rats do better in Object recognition memory (ORM) tests. ORM tests consisted on evaluating the exploration time after an object was presented for 3 minutes, and presented again after a delay period of 30 minutes, 45 minutes or 60 minutes. Rats could recognise the object after 30 or 45 minutes had passed, but failed to do it after the 60 min delay. A group of these rats was then injected with a lentivirus coupled with the RGS-14 gene into layer 6 of V2, at 2/3 of V2 (dorsal to layer 6 of V2), at CA1 and at the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (both ven tral to layer 6 of V2). This permitted the overexpression of RGS-14 at those sites. Rats were ORM tested again 3 weeks after the injection was done. What was found was that rats improved in their ORM tests when they were injected exactly at layer 6 of V2, whereas the rest of the rat groups (injected at other sites), did not show any difference in performance, and their activity was similar to that of the initial non-injected rats. The layer 6 injected rats were ORM tested again, to see how much retention they could support, showing up to 6 object retention (in comparison to the 2 object retention non-injected rats showed), and increasing its retention time to about 24 weeks. They then proceeded to make immunocytochemistry analysis to localize protein expression, which showed that RGS-14 was primarily being expressed at layer 6 of V2. The other methodology used focused on presenting the result of layer 6 of V2 destruction, by the injection of Ox7-SAP into this layer in non-injected rats and RGS-14 injected rats, and later doing the ORM test to both groups. Non-injected rats showed an increased reduction in retention time, not being able to perform equally as they did when layer 6 of V2 was not ablated. RGS-14 lentivirus injected rats also showed a reduction in their ORM test performance. A group of rats, either injected or non-injected, were tested again, only that before having layer 6 of V2 ablated by Ox7-SAP an object was presented for three minutes. Rat performance was not reduced when ORM test was done with object that was previously presented, but did showed reduction when the ORM was done with a new object, presented after layer 6 removal. The results showed an involvement of layer 6 of V2 in memory trace, though not storage. It is not explicitly said if the RGS-14 G protein regulator is naturally expressed in layer 6 of V2. As far as the obtained results, it is possible to say that RGS-14 could act as treatment option for short memory disorders or impairments, though more trials are possibly needed. Contrasting early visual cortical activation states casually involved in visual imagery and short term memory With the use of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), Cattaneo et al., (2009) evaluated the role of early visual areas in memory and visual imagery. They essentially established two similar experiments involving two tasks, the imagery task and the memory task, in subjects who were either undergoing occipital TMS (over V1/V2), Vertex TMS (as a control) or No TMS. In the imagery task of the first experiment, subjects had to create a mental image of something. It consisted on presenting a black dot in the middle of a white screen, followed by a series of digits (that represented an hour, e.g. 10.10, 6.50, etc.), for about 1000 ms. Then this digits disappeared and a black circle showed up. Subjects were then asked to imagine the clock hands in the position that would describe the digits they had just seen. After a 2 second period passed, a single pulse of TMS was applied, depending on the condition previously defined for them. Next, a black dot was shown (inside the black circle) and subjects were asked to tell if this dot had appeared inside or outside the area the clock hands were supposed to be, by either pressing 1 or 2 on a keyboard for either inside or outside the area. In the memory task in the same experiment, subjects also had to fix their eyes at a black dot in the white screen. Then, the clock hands (describing an hour) inside a circle appeared for about 1000 ms. When this period had passed, the hands disappeared but the circle remained, and subjects were asked to continue on thinking on the clock hands for about 2 s. TMS was applied at the end of this 2 s (retention) period, in the same mode as in the imagery task. A block then appeared inside the circle and subjects were asked to describe whether the dot was inside or outside the area the clock hands formed. By doing ANOVA, they found no relevant differences between the mean detection accuracies between TMS conditions: Occipital TMS, Vertex TMS and No TMS, in both imagery and memory tasks. However, the mean reaction times did show relevant differences between those conditions, in both tasks. A Post hoc comparison showed that performance was better in the Occipital TMS than when condition were Vertex TMS or no TMS. There was also no significant variation when the analysis was done between Vertex TMS and no TMS. Experiment two was fairly similar to the one described above. It also involved a memory and imagery task, with the only difference being when was TMS applied: at the beginning of the 2 s period after subjects had seen the digits and were asked to imagine the clock hands inside the circle, for the imagery task, and at the beginning of the 2 s period when they were asked to continue on thinking on the clock hands, for the memory task. By performing ANOVA they found no significant difference between conditions for the mean detection accuracies and reaction time, in the imagery task. Conversely, in the memory task, ANOVA showed a relevant effect in mean detection accuracy and mean time, as well as the Post hoc analysis showed occipital TMS had an effect in comparison to the other conditions, both of which was impairment in performance. Discussion MTL structures have been presented as the major components in perception and working memory, and it is seen as a domain where ORM is thought to be processed (Kà ¡ldy and Sigala, 2004). Là ³pez-Aranda et al, (2009) results of the role of layer 6 neurons in the formation of both normal (short-term) and long-term ORM highlight the importance of V2, an area placed outside of MTL. Not much is known about the protein overexpressed at V2, RGS-14. It is integrated by a Regulators of G protein Signaling domain, as well as by a motif that permit its binding to inactive GDP; and by a tandem Rap1/2–binding domain. Acting as a GTPase activating protein, the protein increases the rate of conversion of the GTP to GDP. This allows the G alpha subunits to bind subunit heterodimers, and eventually ending a signal (NCBI, 2013). It would be interesting to know what made the authors determine to test this protein in that specific layer of V2, as it is not fully stated in the article, and because RGS14 was found to be expressed naturally/primarily in CA2 hippocampal neurons and to show memory â€Å"obstruction† when expressed in mice (Lee et al., 2010). Perhaps difference s between species (as both studies were done with model animals: rats and mice) are more relevant than thought, and should be taken in account before making any definite conclusion or investigate of how the signaling process occurs and affects a cognitive behavior, such as memory. However, findings involving TMS analysis in humans by decrease of activity, as the one presented by Cattaneo et al. (2009), in which there was a noted decrease in subject performance in the memory task when TMS was applied in the beginning of the â€Å"retention period† at V1/V2, indicate that memory of visual information involves activity in early visual cortex that goes further than the periods of sensory perception. In early visual cortex, memory of visual content is topographically organized. These results are possibly due to less vulnerability to interference after the retention period, and a possible interaction with higher order areas activity with visual cortex activity (van de Ven and Sack, 2013). The previous results can be paired with Harrison and Tong (2009) results, were they used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in conjunction to Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) analysis, to monitor cortical activity while participants did a delayed orientation discrimination task, where 2 gratings were shown to the subjects, followed by a cue that indicated which grating to remember (first or second) and an 11 s period (delay period). Then the grating was showed again and subjects had to say if the image was rotated in a sense or antisense (clockwise) matter. They examined the role of visual areas in working memory through different experiments; fMRI decoding was specifically used to evaluate the patterns in brain activity, in areas corresponding to V1 to V4 (to the 120 most responsive voxels) to try to predict its representation in working memory. The accuracy of predicted orientation that was held in memory reached 83%, which is considered to be very high, one of the ex periments where subjects had to fix its eye to a letter, and not the grating, showed high prediction to those gratings in areas V1, V2 and V3. Ultimately, their findings suggest that memory related information may be encoded in these structures (showing increased activity in areas V1/V2) and that early visual areas can hold up information, not only displaying sensory processing functions. Different approaches can be taken to evaluate visual cortex relation with memory, as the ones reviewed in this essay: TMS, protein overexpression, fMRI among others. Evidence that sensory cortical areas are an active element of the circuitry that underlies short term retention of sensory signals is emerging and improving our understanding of memory. It can be concluded that not only the MTL is important for visual memory processing, but also early visual cortex and evidence of what is happening at the cellular level needs to be improved in order to eventually delimit its potential in cognitive treatments. References Bussey TJ, Saksida LM (2007) Memory, perception, and the ventral visual-perirhinal-hippocampal stream: thinking outside of the boxes. Hippocampus 17:898-908. Cattaneo Z, Vecchi T, Pascual-Leone A, Silvanto J (2009) Contrasting early visual cortical activation states causally involved in visual imagery and short-term memory. The European journal of neuroscience 30:1393-1400. Harrison SA, Tong F (2009) Decoding reveals the contents of visual working memory in early visual areas. Nature 458:632-635. Kaldy Z, Sigala N (2004) The neural mechanisms of object working memory: what is where in the infant brain? Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews 28:113-121. Lee SE, Simons SB, Heldt SA, Zhao M, Schroeder JP, Vellano CP, Cowan DP, Ramineni S, Yates CK, Feng Y, Smith Y, Sweatt JD, Weinshenker D, Ressler KJ, Dudek SM, Hepler JR (2010) RGS14 is a natural suppressor of both synaptic plasticity in CA2 neurons and hippocampal-based learning and memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107:16994-16998. Lopez-Aranda MF, Lopez-Tellez JF, Navarro-Lobato I, Masmudi-Martin M, Gutierrez A, Khan ZU (2009) Role of layer 6 of V2 visual cortex in object-recognition memory. Science 325:87-89. NCBI (2013) RGS14 regulator of G-protein signaling 14 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]. In. USA. Pasternak T, Greenlee MW (2005) Working memory in primate sensory systems. Nature reviews Neuroscience 6:97-107. Super H (2003) Working memory in the primary visual cortex. Archives of neurology 60:809-812. van de Ven V, Sack AT (2013) Transcranial magnetic stimulation of visual cortex in memory: cortical state, interference and reactivation of visual content in memory. Behavioural brain research 236:67-77.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Society’s Treatment of Women Revealed in The Yellow Wallpaper

Society’s Treatment of Women Revealed in The Yellow Wallpaper      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Charlotte Perkins Gilman had problems. Most of those problems resulted from her nervous condition that was previously termed â€Å"melancholia.† She did not give in – Gilman was a fighter. Instead of bowing to the disease, she wrote â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper,† a story intended to help other women suffering from a similar fate. Although this explanation reveals why Gilman wrote the book, it does not reveal the true intention of the story. This is not merely the tale of an insane woman. The narrator’s insanity is a symbol for Gilman’s commentary on the evils of social conformity with relevance to the role of women in society. The narrator comes to realize the inhumanity in society’s treatment of women, and, as a result of her awakening, she cannot help but visualize her own torment brought on by the old yellow wallpaper that hangs around her, a faded cage. The narrator’s name is left a mystery in order to give her u niversal appeal. The narrator could be and is every wife, every mother, every daughter, every woman. Gilman uses imagery and literary devices to convey her moral of the mistreatment of women in the 19th century.      The first striking image that readers of "The Yellow Wallpaper" are presented with is not that of a room, it is not of the house, but of the character of John, the husband. John is described as a man of a "practical and ext... ...21-530. King, Jeanette, and Pam Morris. "On Not Reading Between the Lines: Models of Reading in 'The Yellow Wallpaper.'" Studies in Short Fiction 26.1 (Winter 1989): 23-32. Knight, Denise D. "The Reincarnation of Jane: 'Through This' - Gilman's Companion to 'The Yellow Wallpaper.'" Women's Studies 20 (1992): 287-302. Rigney, Barbara Hill. Madness and Sexual Politics in the Feminist Novel: Studies in Bronte, Woolf, Lessing, and Atwood. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1978. Russell, Denise. Women, Madness and Medicine. Cambridge, MA: Polity Press, 1995. Showalter, Elaine. The Female Malady: Women, Madness, and English Culture, 1830-1980. New York: Pantheon Books, 1985.   

Monday, August 19, 2019

Skill in Presenting Information Both Orally and in Writing :: essays research papers

Skill in presenting information both orally and in writing. During my tenure with the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and especially in my current position, a substantial part of my duties has required strong skills in presenting information both orally and in writing. As an example of my oral communication skills, I was selected by the office Director to be a presenter at an NCI symposium on the documentation of cancer research. This symposium was designed to inform cancer researchers about the new methods of cancer documentation within the NCI guidelines. This symposium was attended by 100+ participants consisting of researchers, scientists and support staff. I spoke on the history of the NCI, the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on documentation, and the relationship between NCI and the National Institutes of Health. In my former position as Executive Assistant to the Office of the Director (OD), I served as the liaison between the support staff of the OD, the NIH executive support staff, and companies in the private sector. I was responsible for keeping all parties informed about assignments and tasks due to the OD. My ability to communicate this information clearly and succinctly was very important in ensuring that the assigned tasks were fully understood and completed in a timely manner. Effective written communication skills are also critical in my current position. I have taken over a number of writing assignments previously completed by my supervisor. For instance, I draft monthly reports that update Division Directors and Institute Administrators on changes in procedures and regulations and their impact on operations. These written reports are concise yet detailed, and they are routinely approved by my supervisor without corrections.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Using Total Physical Response, Ollers Episodic Theory, and Krashens Monitor Hypothesisa :: Teaching Education Philosophy

Using Total Physical Response, Ollers Episodic Theory, and Krashen's Monitor Hypothesisa to Teach a Second Language Teaching is a wonderful thing where you are given the opportunity to make a difference in the life of a student. Teaching is about making a connection with the students and reaching out to those who need it. As a future Spanish teacher I am looking forward to this opportunity because I will be instrumental in helping students make a connection with other cultures and compare it to their own. As a foreign language instructor I will have the responsibility to demonstrate the importance of language in today's world and I will do this by providing different types of classroom activities. Teaching a second language creates the potential to overcome cultural gaps by allowing students of all backgrounds to communicate in a language other then their own without having to spend significant resources to do so. In addition to this a foreign language gives students the opportunity to learn about different cultures, customs and beliefs without having to travel any further then the classroom. A technique that is both effective and creates a fun learning environment are games. The use of games allows learning to take place on both the conscious and subconscious levels. By the use of games you can use many modern techniques such as Total Physical Response (TPR), story telling as prescribed by Ollers Episodic Theory, while including elements of Krashen's Monitor Hypothesis, all of which can address the national standards. There are several different approaches to learning that involve different theories, which build upon previous information and use different cognitive abilities. However, there is no one formal definition of what learning is. That has been a question that educators have pondered for many years. I believe that learning is a combination of different processes involving memorization, experience, adaptation and application of new skills, as well as conscious and subconscious reinforcement. A good way to facilitate learning is to take elements of these different theories and approaches and integrate them into classroom activities and lesson plans. It's necessary to challenge and motivate the students in order to have them perform well. In order to challenge the students in the study of a foreign language I will present them with different aspects of the cultures in which the language represents by cultural readings, foreign newspapers, and samples of music and food that are represented in those cultures.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Event That Make a Person an Adult Essay

People recognize a difference between children and adults. What events (experiences or ceremonies) make a person an adult? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. I think the question what events make a person an adult is the one that is open for debate. Some people think that the graduation of high school makes a person an adult. Others think that the age of 21 is the age when childhood is replaced by adulthood. However, from my everyday experience and observation I can stand three major events that make a person an adult. The first event that makes a person an adult is getting a job. The ability to earn his own money gives a person the opportunity to live independently from his parents. Personally, I think the first job is a very important experience in person’s life and it has a great impact on his personality. He learns how to manage his expenses and how to save money for the more important things. In addition to those benefits, one learns how to arrange his time in order to have all done on time. The second event, which from my opinion deserves an attention, is the graduation from a college or university. I think it is a very essential step in one’s life because this means the beginning of a new life with more responsibilities. Finally, I believe that marriage has a great impact on person’s life. Marriage means an independent life from one’s parents with a new person. It is a very great experience. Two persons create a new family and they face new difficulties and responsibilities. In conclusion, I think that the list of events that make a person an adult can be continued. For example, getting a driving license has sometimes a very great impact on person’s life. Another important event in a person’s life is the army. I know many young men who served in the Army that changed them very much. They became more serious, self-confident and independent people. So, my point is that every person has different events that influenced his life and make him an adult.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Night Analogies Essay

This book invoked a lot of empathic and sympathetic emotions in my senses. I loved the symbolism, imagery, and allegory of this text, although painful, it portrayed the life of Jews and their torture. â€Å"Night† is used throughout the book to symbolize death, darkness of the soul, and loss of faith. As an image, it comes up repeatedly. Even when the scene is literally set during the day, night may be invoked. Consider all the terrible things that happen at night: Mrs. Schachter has her visions of fire, hell, and death; (Wiesel 24-27) Elie and his father arrive at Auschwitz and see the smokestacks and wait in line all night long with the smell of death in their noses; there is the night the soup tastes like corpses(67); they march through long nights and, stacked on top of each other, smother each other to death in the night; Elie’s father dies during the night (110-112). As Elie says himself, â€Å"The days were like nights, and the nights left the dregs of their darkness in our souls† (100). Night is thus a metaphor for the way the soul was submerged in suffering and hopelessness. It represented the endless torture and death of these HUMAN.I empathize the word humans because if one reads this book, you would think the Jews were in human. All the pain and misery leads one to believe that Jews were not even worthy enough to be called a human, but the question that arises all the time for me is†¦.WOULD A DOG BE TREATED IN SUCH A MANNER? The fact that fire and flames were used to symbolize death was quite disturbing at times throughout the scenes of this book. In Chapter two, as the train full of Jews from Sighet approaches Auschwitz, Mrs. Schachter has a vision of fire and flames. (24-27) She screeches about the fire through the long night and then again the following night. When they at last arrive at Auschwitz, the inhabitants of the car understand what she was talking about: the crematoria, where bodies of prisoners are burned. â€Å"My soul had been invaded– and devoured—by a black flame. Fire is an ever-present threat of death; the view and the smell of the crematoria permeate all aspects of life in the concentration camps, reminding the prisoners of their closeness to death. It was never a moment that peace dwell ed with them while in the confines of the German empire. Lastly the image of corpses is used not only to describe literal death, but  also to symbolize spiritual death. After liberation, when Elie looks at himself for the first time in many months, since the Ghetto, he sees a corpse in the mirror. (115) The look in his eyes as he stares at himself never leaves him. It speaks of the horror he has experienced and seen, which stole his childhood innocence and his faith in God’s mercy and justice. This was the hard pill to swallow. Not only does he feel and look dead, but he is far from dead. There comes a time when you have been beaten and town down so much and so long to the point that you actually become dead. This scene illustrates the dying of humanistic characteristics while still living, (THE WALKING/LIVING DEAD!) Who could ever be okay with living like this

Thursday, August 15, 2019

History of Leadership Theory Essay

The history of leadership theory can assist managers in understanding where the schools of leadership thought have been, and where leadership will be going. The key objective of this paper is to critically compare and contrast the historical leadership model and theories across history. Across the history of leadership, there are similar and divergent strategies that have matched the influence of the market and people operating within the market (or industry). The essay examines the roles and strategy of historical leadership models as they converge or diverge with one another. Roles are the expectations of leadership behaviour; this is the ideals in which the organization and employees hold to be important in a leader. Strategy can be defined, for the purposes of this paper, as the manner in which the leader assesses and organizes the tasks and requirements of the tasks and behaviours throughout the interactions and roles of the leader or manager. Theories of Leadership The following section explores the historical theories and implications of leadership as pre-classical, classical, modern and post-modern leadership models. Pre-Classical The most prominent pre-classical models of leadership were in the early Greek history, where early scholars set the value-based ideals for centuries of leadership and management (Martinze and Bitici p 7 2006). Socrates established that â€Å"[the] management of private concerns differs from that of public concerns only inmagnitude †¦ neither can be carried on without men †¦ and those who understand how to employ [others] are successful directors of private and public concerns, and those who do not understand, will err in the management of both† (Wren p 18 2006). This shows the early role of management was to understand the functional variances and magnitude of public concern, thus business was also a political landscape. In later Greek history, Aristotle added to the strategy spectrum of the manager as relating to the specialization of labor, functional roles of departments, choices between centralization and decentralization, the whole of the organization is superior to the part; and, â€Å"On leadership: ‘He who has never learned to obey cannot be a good commander’† (Wren p 18-192006). Thus the roles of pre-classical era management are relative to the ability to navigate through a highly political economy and direct the organization to answering public and private concerns (Martinze and Bitici p 7 2006). The strategy of the pre-classical era was to recognize the steps involved in the entire scope of the organization based on functionality. This was an effective method of management in the pre-classical era, and can be considered in line with the ideal service industries of the time, such as bath houses, shoe and boot makers, weapons makers, and others. Classical  Adam Smith showed that the leadership strategy â€Å"treated the return or the surplus created as a return to capital† (Wren p 42 2006). After Smith, Jean Baptiste Say (1767–1832) stated that leadership strategy requires knowledge and judgement in â€Å"†¦ the probable amount of the demand, and the means of its production: at one time he must employ a great number of hands; at another, buy or order the raw material, collect laborers, find consumers, and give at all times a rigid attention to order and economy; in a word, he must possess the art of superintendence and administration† (Wren p 42-43 2006). Thus the leadership role in the classical era is defined as one that is highly dependent on the decision making process, and that the strategy incorporates demand, production, and consumption through the entire market-industry domain. During this era, human history was entering the industrial phase, where industry was overpopulating the market rather than the traditional farmer markets (Martinze and Bitici p 7 2006). The classical model recognized the effectiveness of a leader as one who must focus on value-based decision makings when information is not whole, when the industry and foundation of the economy is changing, and be able to administrate in a changing economy (Martinze and Bitici p 7 2006) Modern Modern era leadership evolved through the industrial phase, prompted by technology and the early globalizing aspect of the value chain that existed during the post-WW2 era (Martinez and Bitici p 7 2006). The role formulation of leadership in the modern era can be attributed to Jennings (196) who showed the modern era of management should encompass the situation, behaviour, and incorporate situation-based theory models. Jenning’s leader was emphatically described as a hero who â€Å"acts as though possessed by a destiny that requires his being the center of attention, and having arrived there, he never willingly retires from the center until he feels no longer needed† where the strategy â€Å"requires great stamina, self-reliance, and confidence† (Jennings p 96, 122, 1960). Max Weber initialized the modern strategy of leadership as being: †¢ A continuous organisation or functions bounded by rules (Enock p 6 2002) †¢ That individuals functioned within the limits of the specialisation of the work (Enock p 6 2002) †¢ The degree of authority allocated and the rules governing the exercise of Authority (Enock p 6 2002) †¢ A hierarchical structure of offices appointment to offices made on the grounds of technical competence only (Enock p 6 2002) †¢ The separation of officials from the ownership of the organisation (Enock p 6 2002) The authority was vested in the official positions and not in the personalities that held these posts (Enock p 6 2002) †¢ Rules, decisions and actions were formulated and recorded in writing (Enock p 6 2002) The modern era leader’s role was to serve the organization, and the strategy employed was hierarchical, top-down management. This was adequate for its time, however, the bureaucratic model of organizational leadership did little to promote a value and knowledge based leadership era seen in other theories. Post Modern The post-modern era of leadership is the current theories in place. Entrepreneurial leadership is a formal process that incorporates informal ideas. The leadership qualities are often determined by a number of forces, such as â€Å"The size of the organization, its predominant management styles, the complexity of its environment, its production process, its problems, and the purpose of its planning system all play a part in determining the appropriate degree of formality† (Pearce and Robinson p 13 2004). The effective post-modern leadership strategy focuses on four key points, as outlined by Kouzes and Posner (2002): seize the initiative; make challenges meaningful; innovate and create; look outward for fresh ideas. A post-modern leader values entrepreneur ideals and seizes the initiative through enthusiasm, determination and desire (Kouzes and Posner p 170 2002). The leader wants to exhibit innovation by seeking new ways and new opportunities through invention and motivation. The concept of innovation requires that the leader be ready to focus on opportunities for ways to do what has never been done (Kouzes and Posner p 175 2002). Conclusion The pre-classical era focused on the implementation of public and private beuaracracy into the leadership domain, where the ideals of the ‘whole’ and the ability to command were held in the higher regard as traditional utility. The value of the leader was therefore based on the ability to command and conquer. In later classical theories, the value of leadership changed to incorporate decision-making strategy and value distribution over commanding, but the similarity to pre-classical is the ability to conquer through administration. The modern eras changed the role of a leader from the earlier theories by incorporating behaviour theory over command and conquer ideals. Weber’s leadership model parallels Aristotle’s, in that individual specialization and decision based decentralization better served the organization. The post-modern era of leadership incorporates elements from all the historical theories of leadership, but marks the importance of continuous improvement and constant appraisal, communication, and informalities.

Human Resource Management and Siemens Essay

1. How does Siemens seek to provide good career opportunities for employees? The entire article is about Siemens and how they manage its employees. The Culture of the company is high performance which is to encourage people to achieve high results. When you are in a company whose culture is to do the best, you definitely have a chance to improve your career. The Environment of Siemens Is rare whose workforce consists of professional people who believe in teamwork and hard work does not prevent having fun together and party. Dr. Klaus Kleinfield said he â€Å"was able to build large circle of advisors and friends within the company† (qtd in success stories). Most of us would love to work in this kind of company. Siemens also provide you the chance to enter global high technology company because it operates jointly in many countries. There is also flexibility and diversification in the company. More than 500,000 employees work in industries of healthcare, transportation, telecommunication, power generation and electronics (success stories). Their organiz ation structure is not flat; they have broad range of positions like human resource specialists, administrators, researchers, etc (creating†¦). There is good chance of making a career in company like Siemens. They also have some programs inside the company itself that renders employees the opportunities. Siemens have Human Resource Development Program which function is to identify and meet the needs of their workforce. The strategy helps worker to excel at work which is beneficial for the company and its employees. The most important part of program is that Siemens is â€Å"encouraging employees to improve their career and other aspects of life† (qtd in creating).Besides human resource development program, they also have Talent Management Philosophy. It makes sure that each employee is given support to achieve the maximum potential (creating). 2. Describe one of the systems that Siemens has created which provides development opportunities for employees at work. Talent Management- managing People Talent Management is not the only system in Siemens which provide opportunities, they also have Human Resource Development Program and many others which not appear in the study. I am going to describe Talent Management. The system makes sure that each employee is given a support to achieve their maximum potential and works together to achieve the organization’s objective. There are no reasons to prevent the progress of your career, if you work in a company like Siemens. The strategy is for all the employees, not just the high position workers. According to Siemens Everyone has talent and can make the best use (creating). Human Resource is also taken into consideration for Talent Management System. Matching the talent with appropriate task gives them the competitive advantage. You can see how important the strategy is for the company. Talent management provides job enrichment and enlargement. In the first one workers are inspire for additional charge to make the work appealing and in enlargement, extension is given to responsibility range with knowledge and skills. The system is very helpful for managers in a way that it enables them to engage and motivate the employees to accomplish the organization’s goals. Before jumping to Talent Management directly, it is important to take into account Performance Management. According to Siemens, Talent management depends on Performance Management. Siemens has also created a standard process of conducting the performance and development of their workforce (creating).Performance Management is what happens between company’s plans and individual target of the employees. The process creates communication and trust by setting goals, monitoring performance and discussion between managers and subordinates. Honesty is very critical in the entire system. 2. How important is the appraisal system in helping to create shared understandings about the objectives of the organization and personal objectives of individual employees? The appraisal system is extremely important for any company in helping to create shared understandings about organizations objectives. Appraisal is giving reward to an individual or a team for their performance. The reward could be any form like words, promotion, bonus, etc. There are several different appraisal techniques like: self-review, immediate supervisor, peer group, team, and overall assignment, upward and 360 degree (kork). You can’t classify any single techniques the best. It depends on the situation, identifying which type of appraisal system will work better than the other. After all, providing appraisal is more important than the kind of system we choose. From my point of view appraisal is very important in any organization, does not matter if the company is small or large. As a university student will be happy if the professor gives me a reward like â€Å"good job†, it will keep me motivated to do my best the next time. We could say the same thing about the employees working at Siemens. Before appraisal system, knowledge sharing is necessary. Knowledge sharing is â€Å"capturing, organizing, reusing and transferring experience based knowledge that reside within the organization making it available to others†(qtd in kork†¦). Giving appraisal is critical for better communication and management in the organization. For a company like Siemens appraisal system is very essential because their system is all about targets and performance of the employees. Through appraisal employees know their results of the performance. It is very important in fast changing world â€Å"effective appraisal systems act as a primary vehicle for the measurement change† (qtd in kork†¦). 3. How effective do you think the Siemens approach to people management will be in creating great results? Right now Siemens is doing a great job for managing people. Siemens culture is high performance which will keep their employees motivated. Than they have Human Resource development program and Talent Management Philosophy which I mentioned earlier. They says that â€Å"excellent people need to be managed in a excellent way†(qtd in creating†¦). The key point for their management is that they take benefits from employees and also provide them back in different ways. Many companies do not take into consideration the other advantages provided by the company. Giving salary is not all that matters. When Siemens assign a task to the employees they pass the responsibility with trust which leads to engagement, commitment and high performance. By doing what Siemens is doing at the present, they will be success effectively managing the people. If they keep doing the same thing with little changes require with the time, they will have no problem managing workforce.5. How you would apply what you have learned from the case study. Siemens case study is very important for me, in fact I will keep this for future. There are some very important details of management and Human Resources. I will make sure that my subordinates get something more than salary from the company. Every single thing in the article is very essential for manager. I would like to go in a company who offer similar benefits like Siemens and whose culture is high performance. Companies like Siemens offer you the opportunity to make growth in your career. I will like to have programs like Human Resource Development and Talent management in my company which could provide some exceptional talents I could not have figure out. This kind of articles just open up your mind and make you think about what was unknown before. Communication and integration is very essential wherever we work. It will take forward your company or family. Siemens operates in different countries; all this is done because they communicate well from long distance.