Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Prostitution should be legalized Prostitution was estimated to date back to at least 2400 B. C, along with doctor, scribe, barber and cook (Little known facts in the prostitution debate, n. d. ). Despite this length of service, whether sex industry should be legalized or not is still a controversial issue that takes a lot of time to find the best decision. In my opinion prostitution should be legalized for a better prostitutesÃ¢â¬â¢ working condition, for a lower sexually transmitted diseases rates and an enhanced power of governments toward this job.To begin with, prostitutionÃ¢â¬â¢s legalization with rules setting prostitutesÃ¢â¬â¢ rights and duties will help to provide them with a better working condition. In present situation, sex workers are being treated in a subhuman way. Suraya, a sex worker was reported to have been beaten, threaten by a knife, raped many times, stolen all money and finally thrown out of the car by her own customer (Pauw and Brener,1998). Not only be c ustomersÃ¢â¬â¢ victims, prostitutes also are exploited by their pimps.Kudlow (2006) found that Ã¢â¬Å"even though the girls take home the cash, make no mistakes, the pimp gets all the money. There is no such thing as a commission, percentage, cut, kickback, or dividendÃ¢â¬ . Moreover, according to Fighting sexual exploitation and trafficking in Indonesia (2004), in Indonesia, one third of sex workers are being underage girls. These girls have not grown up both physical part and mental part, but they are swept into this job too early, which can turn them to a disastrous end.These raw facts, which are requiring for an urgent action from the government, set an alarm to wake us up. If there is an official legalization along with rules setting about prostitutesÃ¢â¬â¢ rights and duties, the pimps will no longer be able to coerce these sex workers, these workers can receive their salary fairly and underage girls will be prevented from entering this job too early. Secondly, prostituti onÃ¢â¬â¢s legalization with rules requiring periodic health checks will help to reduce sexually transmitted rates through this service.Sexually transmitted diseases, which are haunting a number of infected people and their families, are all societyÃ¢â¬â¢s interest. The sex industryÃ¢â¬â¢s legalization with a requirement to access periodic health checks is an intelligent method for this problem. Prostitutes with sexually transmitted rates will be found out and treated in time, and also the number of people catching diseases through prostitution will be reduced. Some third countries have gained a significant fall in sexually transmitted rates in this way such as Kenya and Senegal.After the prostitutionÃ¢â¬â¢s legalization, the number of condoms used by sex workers in Kenya had increased to more than 80%. In Senegal, by special clinical services such as offering regular examinations and treatments for registered prostitutes, HIV prevalence among pregnant women had fallen into u nder 1% (Steen, as cited in Liberator, 2005). Obviously, prostitutionÃ¢â¬â¢s decriminalization with rules requiring periodic health checks is the best way to lower STDs rates through prostitution as well as improve the social health.Finally, present laws with its prohibition against selling sex have not come up with peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s expectation. Almost everywhere in the United States, sex workers and their customers are penalized for what they did as consenting adults. However, after having paid the fines, sex workers come back to streets with their work and no decrease in the number of them has been reported. Also in this review of legalizationÃ¢â¬â¢s benefits, they added that Ã¢â¬Å"Making prostitution legal will allow the act to be managed instead of ignoredÃ¢â¬ .In addition to this situation, present laws do not provide prostitutes with enough protection. A prostitute murder confessed to have killed a total of forty eight sex workers Ã¢â¬Å"because he knew he would not be h eld accountableÃ¢â¬ and it took police 20 years to detect his crime (Ditmore, 2007). Some people may argue that prostitutes and their job break the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s morality. This opinion only focuses on the merit of the surface, considering prostitutes as criminals and criticizing them, not regarding to the fact that they are also human, they also have to labor inturn of money.According to a survey (Lobert, n. d. ) named Ã¢â¬Å"What do you needÃ¢â¬ conducted among prostitutes, 78% need home and safe places, 58% need health care and 42% need legal assistance. These girls are living in a subhuman life, they are requiring all basic needs. Moreover, prostitution will always exist because its serving important function in societies (Kingsley & Davis, as cited in Kendall, 1998). Without customersÃ¢â¬â¢ demand, prostitution would no longer be able to continue. Consequently, prostitutes deserve to work under the lawsÃ¢â¬â¢ patronage.In conclusion, based on the real situations, pr ostitution should be legalized. Along with the legalization, there will be rules setting about allowed age, working condition and health check requirement. This legalization not only brings about a better working condition for those sex workers, but also contributes to reduce sexually transmitted diseases, and thus build up a better world.References Kendall, D. E. (1998). Social problems in a diverse society. Chapter 7, p. 136, p. 141. United States. Kudlow, M. (2006). Selling sex. Retrieved November 21, 2009, from http://thegauntlet. ca/story/10365 Liberator, M. (2005). Legalized prostitution: Regulating the oldest profession. Retrieved November 21, 2009 from http://liberator. net/articles/prostitution. html Little known facts in the prostitution debate (n. d. ). Retrieved November 21, 2009, from http://prostitution. procon. org/view. resource. php? resourceID=000116 Lobert, A. (n. d. ). Prostitution statistics-the real truth. Retrieved November 21, 2009, from http://powerhouse-min istry. rg/annielobert_prostitution. aspx Pauw, I. & Brener, L. (1997). Naming the danger of working on the street, p. 80. Agenda Feminist Media. Available online at http://www. jstor. org/pss/4066227 Raymond, J. & Ditmore, M. (2007). Debating legalized prostitution. Retrieved November 21, 2009, from http://humantrafficking. org/updates/643 UNICEF (n. d. ). Fighting sexual exploitation and trafficking in Indonesia. Retrieved November 21, 2009, from http://www. unicef. org/infobycountry/indonesia_23650. html Prostitution Should Be Legalized Prostitution should be legalized Prostitution was estimated to date back to at least 2400 B. C, along with doctor, scribe, barber and cook (Little known facts in the prostitution debate, n. d. ). Despite this length of service, whether sex industry should be legalized or not is still a controversial issue that takes a lot of time to find the best decision. In my opinion prostitution should be legalized for a better prostitutesÃ¢â¬â¢ working condition, for a lower sexually transmitted diseases rates and an enhanced power of governments toward this job.To begin with, prostitutionÃ¢â¬â¢s legalization with rules setting prostitutesÃ¢â¬â¢ rights and duties will help to provide them with a better working condition. In present situation, sex workers are being treated in a subhuman way. Suraya, a sex worker was reported to have been beaten, threaten by a knife, raped many times, stolen all money and finally thrown out of the car by her own customer (Pauw and Brener,1998). Not only be c ustomersÃ¢â¬â¢ victims, prostitutes also are exploited by their pimps.Kudlow (2006) found that Ã¢â¬Å"even though the girls take home the cash, make no mistakes, the pimp gets all the money. There is no such thing as a commission, percentage, cut, kickback, or dividendÃ¢â¬ . Moreover, according to Fighting sexual exploitation and trafficking in Indonesia (2004), in Indonesia, one third of sex workers are being underage girls. These girls have not grown up both physical part and mental part, but they are swept into this job too early, which can turn them to a disastrous end.These raw facts, which are requiring for an urgent action from the government, set an alarm to wake us up. If there is an official legalization along with rules setting about prostitutesÃ¢â¬â¢ rights and duties, the pimps will no longer be able to coerce these sex workers, these workers can receive their salary fairly and underage girls will be prevented from entering this job too early. Secondly, prostituti onÃ¢â¬â¢s legalization with rules requiring periodic health checks will help to reduce sexually transmitted rates through this service.Sexually transmitted diseases, which are haunting a number of infected people and their families, are all societyÃ¢â¬â¢s interest. The sex industryÃ¢â¬â¢s legalization with a requirement to access periodic health checks is an intelligent method for this problem. Prostitutes with sexually transmitted rates will be found out and treated in time, and also the number of people catching diseases through prostitution will be reduced. Some third countries have gained a significant fall in sexually transmitted rates in this way such as Kenya and Senegal.After the prostitutionÃ¢â¬â¢s legalization, the number of condoms used by sex workers in Kenya had increased to more than 80%. In Senegal, by special clinical services such as offering regular examinations and treatments for registered prostitutes, HIV prevalence among pregnant women had fallen into u nder 1% (Steen, as cited in Liberator, 2005). Obviously, prostitutionÃ¢â¬â¢s decriminalization with rules requiring periodic health checks is the best way to lower STDs rates through prostitution as well as improve the social health.Finally, present laws with its prohibition against selling sex have not come up with peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s expectation. Almost everywhere in the United States, sex workers and their customers are penalized for what they did as consenting adults. However, after having paid the fines, sex workers come back to streets with their work and no decrease in the number of them has been reported. Also in this review of legalizationÃ¢â¬â¢s benefits, they added that Ã¢â¬Å"Making prostitution legal will allow the act to be managed instead of ignoredÃ¢â¬ .In addition to this situation, present laws do not provide prostitutes with enough protection. A prostitute murder confessed to have killed a total of forty eight sex workers Ã¢â¬Å"because he knew he would not be h eld accountableÃ¢â¬ and it took police 20 years to detect his crime (Ditmore, 2007). Some people may argue that prostitutes and their job break the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s morality. This opinion only focuses on the merit of the surface, considering prostitutes as criminals and criticizing them, not regarding to the fact that they are also human, they also have to labor inturn of money.According to a survey (Lobert, n. d. ) named Ã¢â¬Å"What do you needÃ¢â¬ conducted among prostitutes, 78% need home and safe places, 58% need health care and 42% need legal assistance. These girls are living in a subhuman life, they are requiring all basic needs. Moreover, prostitution will always exist because its serving important function in societies (Kingsley & Davis, as cited in Kendall, 1998). Without customersÃ¢â¬â¢ demand, prostitution would no longer be able to continue. Consequently, prostitutes deserve to work under the lawsÃ¢â¬â¢ patronage.In conclusion, based on the real situations, pr ostitution should be legalized. Along with the legalization, there will be rules setting about allowed age, working condition and health check requirement. This legalization not only brings about a better working condition for those sex workers, but also contributes to reduce sexually transmitted diseases, and thus build up a better world.References Kendall, D. E. (1998). Social problems in a diverse society. Chapter 7, p. 136, p. 141. United States. Kudlow, M. (2006). Selling sex. Retrieved November 21, 2009, from http://thegauntlet. ca/story/10365 Liberator, M. (2005). Legalized prostitution: Regulating the oldest profession. Retrieved November 21, 2009 from http://liberator. net/articles/prostitution. html Little known facts in the prostitution debate (n. d. ). Retrieved November 21, 2009, from http://prostitution. procon. org/view. resource. php? resourceID=000116 Lobert, A. (n. d. ). Prostitution statistics-the real truth. Retrieved November 21, 2009, from http://powerhouse-min istry. rg/annielobert_prostitution. aspx Pauw, I. & Brener, L. (1997). Naming the danger of working on the street, p. 80. Agenda Feminist Media. Available online at http://www. jstor. org/pss/4066227 Raymond, J. & Ditmore, M. (2007). Debating legalized prostitution. Retrieved November 21, 2009, from http://humantrafficking. org/updates/643 UNICEF (n. d. ). Fighting sexual exploitation and trafficking in Indonesia. Retrieved November 21, 2009, from http://www. unicef. org/infobycountry/indonesia_23650. html
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
a) The Ludlow Wildcats baseball team, a minor league team in the Cleveland Indians organization, plays 70 percent of their games at night and 30 percent during the day. The team wins 50 percent of their night games and 90 percent of their day games. According to today's newspaper, they won yesterday. What is the probability the game was played at night? % of games played at night = 70% % of games played during day = 30% % of night games won =50% % of day games won= 90% Probability of winning = Probability of winning at night + Probability of winning during day = % of games played at night x % of night games won + % of games played during day x % of day games won = 70% x 50% + 30% x 90% = 0. 35 + 0. 27 = 0. 62 Probability that the game was played during night given that the game was won = Probability of winning at night / Probability of winning = 0. 35 / 0. 62 = 35/62 Answer: Probability = 35/62 This can be understood in a different way Let the number of games played be 100 Out of these 100 games, 70 games were played at night and 30 during day Out of 70 games played at night no of games won = 50% x 70 = 35 games and the number of games lost = 50% x 70 =35 Out of 30 games played during day, no of games won = 90% x 30 = 27 games and the number of games lost = 10% x 30 = 3 Thus total games won = 35 + 27 = 62 (Total games lost = 35 + 3 =38, but this is not required for calculation) Thus out of 62 games won , 35 were won at night Thus probability that the game was played at night, given that the game was won = 35/62 b) With each purchase of a large pizza at Tony's Pizza, the customer receives a coupon that can be scratched to see if a prize will be awarded. The odds of winning a free soft drink are 1 in 10, and the odds of winning a free large pizza are 1 in 50. You plan to eat lunch tomorrow at Tony's. What is the probability: 1. That you will win either a large pizza or a soft drink 2. That you will not win a prize? 3. That you will not win a prize on three consecutive visits to Tony's 4. That you will win at least one prize on one of your next three visits to Tony's We have to convert odds into probability Probability = odds / (1+ odds) Odds of winning a free soft drink are 1 in 10 Therefore, probability of winning a free soft drink = (1/10) / (1 + 1/10) = 1/11 Odds of winning a free large pizza are 1 in 50 Therefore, probability of winning a free large pizza = (1/50) / (1 + 1/50) = 1/51 What is the probability: 1. That you will win either a large pizza or a soft drink The events winning a pizza and winning a soft drink are mutually exclusive (since you can either win a pizza or you can win a soft drink but not both at the same time as you have only one coupon ) Probability of winning either a large pizza or a soft drink = Probability of winning a large pizza + Probability of winning a soft drink = 1/51 + 1/11 = 62 /561 = 0. 11 or 11% 2. That you will not win a prize? Probability of not winning a prize = 1- Probability of winning a prize = 1- 62/561 = 499/561 = 0. 9 or 89% 3. That you will not win a prize on three consecutive visits to Tony's Since the events of winning / not winning on consecutive visits are independent events we will multiply the probabilities Probability of not winning a prize on three consecutive visits = Probability of not winning on first visit x Probability of not winning on second visit x Probability of not winning on third visit = (499 /561) x (499 / 561) x (499 / 561) = (499/561) ^3 = 0. 70 or 70% 4. That you will win at least one prize on one of your next three visits to Tony's Probability of winning at least once = 1- probability of not winning even once = 1- (499/561) ^3 = 0. 30 or 30% c) There are four people being considered for the position of chief executive officer of Dalton Enterprises. Three of the applicants are over 60 years of age. Two are female, of which only one is over 60. 1) What is the probability that a candidate is over 60 and female 2. Given that the candidate is male, what is the probability he is less than 60 3) Given that the person is over 60, what is the probability the person is female Out of 4 applicants Male = 2 (both over 60) Female = 2 (1 over 60, 1 less than 60) 1) What is the probability that a candidate is over 60 and female Out of 4 candidates only 1 is both female and over 60 Therefore probability = ? = 0. 25 or 25% 2. Given that the candidate is male, what is the probability he is less than 60 Both male candidates are over 60 therefore probability = 0 3 Given that the person is over 60, what is the probability the person is female There are 3 persons over 60 out of which 1 is female Therefore, probability = 1/3
? MODULE 2: CASE Informational Privacy Without a doubt, we live in an environment where integrity, respect and good ethics play a fundamental role in the growth and success of many individuals and companies. Unfortunately, this was not the case for Patricia Dunn, former chairman of the Hewlett-Packard (HP) board of directors who was forced to resign her job. She was at the center of a major controversy regarding her effort to investigate who from the board was leaking confidential information to the press about HP's interest in buying another technology company, their corporate strategy, business plans, even their deliberations over who they would hire as CEO. This was a major issue as, not only was sensitive discussions of the board made public in the media, the level of trust between each board member was greatly affected. In a 60 Minutes interview with Lesley Stahl and Patricia Dunn (CBS broadcast), Ã¢â¬Å"the Hewlett-Packard board of directors was described as a leaky ship. Secret board deliberations were ending up in the press left and right, and it was decided that something had to be doneÃ¢â¬ . That something one can argue was the most famous leak investigation since Watergate, and because of it, Patricia Dunn (who was chairman of the HP board of directors) was faced with criminal charges. The charges stem from the use of something called pretexting Ã¢â¬â where someone calls up the phone companies and impersonate someone else in order to obtain their records. This technique is more than a simple lie as it most often involves some prior research or set up and the use of pieces of known information (for example, impersonation, date of birth, social security number -SSN) to establish legitimacy in the mind of the target. Pretexting, in my opinion, is morally wrong because it is deceitful and it invades the privacy of someone else regardless of how useful the act is in solving an investigation. Needless to say, privacy is a fundamental human right that almost every individual seeks to preserve. For the Hewlett-Packard case, board members privacy was in fact invaded but some may argue that such invasion was for a cause. According to the deontological school of thought, the act may be considered the right thing to do even if it produces a bad consequence (as with the forced resignation of Patricia Dunn). For deontologists, the ends or consequences of the actions are not important in and of themselves neither are the intentions. Only the act itself is considered important. Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher, explain this theory of ethics more clearly. He argued that to act in the morally right way, people must act according to duty. That was the case with Patricia Dunn, she believed she had a duty to find out who was leaking sensitive details of discussions of the board to the press. In her 60 Minutes interview with Lesley Stahl, she stated that many directors expressed to her their strong opinion that something had to be done to determine the source of the leak and to bring them to an end. In fact, majority of the directors told her during her first few weeks as Chairman that, Ã¢â¬Å"next to leading the board's CEO search, coming to grips with HP's famously leaky board should be her top priorityÃ¢â¬ . That was exaltly what Dunn did which was a major task in and of itself. Following on Kant's argument, he claims, a person has a good will when he or she Ã¢â¬Ëacts out of respect for the moral law'. People Ã¢â¬Ëact out of respect for the moral law' when they act in some way because they have a duty to do so. So, the only thing that is truly good in itself is a good will, and a good will is only good when the willer chooses to do something because it is that person's duty. Thus, according to Kant, goodness depends on rightness. I think Patricia Dunn was simply doing her duty. Looking at the HP case in more detail, it is obvious that Patricia Dunn did not know the full agenda of the private investigators and what was involved in finding out who was the source of the leaks. Dunn says. Ã¢â¬Å"The idea that I supervised, orchestrated, approved all of the ways in which this investigation occurred is just a complete myth. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a falsehood. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a damaging lie. Ã¢â¬ She admit, however, seeking advice from Bob Wayman, HP's then acting CEO , CFO and Director of Administration, on an affimative action to be taken on the problem of leaks in the company. He was well respected and trusted by many in the company so based on his integrity, she (Dunn) had every reason to rely on his recommendations as to how the security issues at the board level could best be handled given that all the control functions of the company were under his oversight. Mr Wayman referred her to an individual within his organisation who then referred her to Mr Delia (private investigator) who then took the extraordinary step of spying on the records of all the directors (including herself) as well as journalists. At some point during the investigation process in 2005, she (Dunn) became aware from Mr. Delia that phone records were accessed as a standard component of such investigations by HP. In an interview with NEWSWEEK, Dunn stated that she was aware HP was obtaining the phone records of suspected leakers as long ago as 2005. But she did not know about the pretexting until late June, when she saw an e-mail to Perkins from HP's outside counsel, Larry Sonsini and later acknowledged that HP's tactics were Ã¢â¬Å"appallingÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"embarrassingÃ¢â¬ . Essentially, the investigation went on and the leaker of the company's sensitive discussions was identified. The public disclosure of the leaker at a board meeting did not Ã¢â¬Ësit' well with some members on the board as they thought it could have been dealth with differently without causing embarrasment for the leaker . This led to a lot of uphoar and Patricia Dunn was forced to resign. I think her forced resignation grew out of a personal dispute between her and Perkins ( who was also a well-known member of the board of directors and a close friend of the leaker) . To me, Patricia Dunn did what she had to do for the best interest of the company. Hence, she should not have been forced to resign. Reading a statement by Hewlett-Packard's Board of Directors, Ã¢â¬Å"Pattie Dunn has been a valuable director of HP for many years. We acknowledge all of the good work that Pattie has accomplished on behalf of HP. She helped stabilized the business during the CEO transition. She led the search committee for our new chief executive officer, which led to our hiring of Mark Hurd and the outstanding performance of the business over the last eighteen months. She served our board with distinction as chairman for the last year and a half. The board felt it was important to find the sources of the leaks of HP confidential information, and she informed the board that she has taken steps to do so. We have never questioned her intentions, her integrity or her ethics.. we regret that we will lose her contributions to the board and appreciate that she has agree to our requestÃ¢â¬ . It is evident that she had good character and was well repected. She accepted the resposibility to identify the sources of the leaks but she did not propose the specific methods of the investigation which means the premise on which she was forced to resign was not justified!
Monday, July 29, 2019
Children with Lupus - Article Example Researchers analyzed data reports Ã¢â¬Å"children with lupus kidney disease had more than twice (2.4 times) the risk of dying compared to children with other forms of kidney diseaseÃ¢â¬ (para.5). Kidney failure or disease caused by lupus is called Lupus nephritis. This has become a major concern of various medical institute especially lupus related organizations. Last April 14, 2011, the Lupus Foundation of America (LFA) with coordination of RN.com, RxSchool.com, and Dr. Mary Anne Dooley, Member, LFA's Medical-Scientific Advisory Council, launched a new continuing education program for the nurses, pharmacists, and pharmacy technicians. The program entitled Ã¢â¬ËLupus, Deciphering the CluesÃ¢â¬â¢ will enhance health professionals awareness of lupus diagnosis and treatments, to meet the needs of early diagnosis and treatment to avoid further vital organ complications. It has been observed by the LFA, based on their own survey, more than fifty percent among lupus patient had visi ted three or more doctors, and some even suffered four or more years, before they were being diagnosed (Medical News Today, 2011). May this program will be of great help to minimize lethal cases of Lupus nephritis to children, as well as to adults. Actually, researchers have been very enthusiastic in performing in-depth study to learn more about lupus and how lupus nephritis developed. LFA(2011) related the experimentation performed on nineteen week-old female mice to learn about the role of immune system proteins called interferons (IFNs) and macrophages (white blood cells) in the development of lupus nephritis. The mice were divided into three groups, wherein mice in the first group were injected three times per week for four weeks of a drug called polycytidylic acid (PCA) which will cause increased activity of IFNs that will start out lupus. The mice in the second group were injected a single dose only of one kind of lupus-related IFN called type I IFN, while the mice in the thir d group were injected with salt water only, to be used as comparison group. The mice urine were monitored for protein development testing. Then after two weeks, the first and second group of mice manifested developed protein in urine, evidence of developed lupus nephritis. Animal experimentation served as an instrument to discern what types of imbalances might be causing human lupus, and may contribute in finding ways for treatment. Yet, the researchers admitted that such animal experimentations have limitations since there are many known, as well as unknown, differences between human and mice immune system. But still, this may shed light for further studies on what treatment might or might not be useful for treating lupus. As expected, urine protein testing would become useful in early detection of kidney damage from lupus. Therefore, Medical News Today (2010) reported a newly discovered simple urine tests for four proteins that might serve as an instrument for early detection of k idney disease in patient with lupus. Likewise, as the article reports, the UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers conducted experiments on mice and found out four proteins protease, PGDS, SAP and SOS showed up in larger amounts on mice urine with progressive kidney damage. They believed that each of these proteins has corresponds in humanÃ¢â¬â¢s protein or either present in human system. Researchers admitted that this kind of tests might take years to be utilized clinically since they are
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Infrindgment & others - Essay Example A computer is a device that is meant to ease work as well as make data organized and easily accessible. In the developed countries, children are introduced to computers at a very tender age, and they use them for the rest of their lives and hence are hardly hit by the negative effects. Computers pose a risk of the user suffering from musculoskeletal disorders due to the repetitive poster and body movements one has while using the computer (Karavidas, Lim, and Katsikas, 2005, p.699). The continuous use of a computer can make on experience pain on the fingers and upper arm since these body parts are in action while using the computer. The repetitive use of the keyboard leads to inflammation in the carpal tunnel and hence causing a painful syndrome called the carpal tunnel syndrome (Saba, PocklingtonÃ and Miller, 2008, p.66). Many people use the computer for prolonged hours which lead to there being little blood flow in the muscles. The body muscles do not contract and relax and hence an imbalance of blood flow in the muscles takes place which can cause pain on the muscles of the user. Computers are used while sitting and this body posture leads to complications with the back, neck and shoulders. Consistent and continuous use of the computer causes the back to ache due to poor blood flow and also causes the neck to ache due to maintaining one position for a long time. A computer user often has their arms folded at ninety degrees while typing and this position of the hand fatigues the shoulder very fast. The most common health risk of computers is eye and vision impairment due to the bright light that computers produce and the fact that the light is so close to the eyes. Continuous use of the computer makes the user have a blurred vision once they withdraw their eyes from the machine. The eyes have a tendency of getting fatigued and due to so much straining
Saturday, July 27, 2019
How computers changes our lives - Lab Report Example Computer is a machine, which can be used to store data as well as to receive data. Computer is used as a tool in the society along with the Internet. Computers in the modern world have become a very complex because of a lot of component frame within a single computer and these components functions different functions for different purposes In addition to above, this is a research report consisted of some questions and the response analysis. This research report reveals the way computer is playing an important role to change oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. These questions will be regarding the role of computer in changing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. To evaluate or to investigate how far the role of computer in the lives of individuals is deep rooted and what roles it is playing in facilitating the individuals to spend a smooth or comfortable life is the aim of this paper. In this paper, I will be using quantitative method to collect data from different persons and will be using a questionnaire consisted of eight questions. The questionnaire is based on a Likert scale that has the options, strongly agree, agree, agree to some extent, strongly disagree, disagree and disagree to some extent. The sample size is constituted of fifteen respondents. Random sampling was used to select individuals for the survey from the list of contacts that the researcher had on the social media. Using the Microsoft Excel will do the graphical representations. The majority of responses from the survey indicate that it will become evident that there seems to be a strong role of computer in individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ lives, especially, to the educated individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life. The use of computer in everyday life is increasing day by day from offices to universities (Hilber and LÃ ³pez). Without computer it is not possible for a person to access Internet, the largest and the easiest reservoir of information, entertainment and knowledge. 66% of responses indicate
Friday, July 26, 2019
Designing Learning and Development Activities - Essay Example The essay "Designing Learning and Development Activities" analyzes the required factors to make a successful learning session. The paper also overviews the methods available to assess learning and performance. There are numerous methods available to assess learning and performance although the most vital factor in selecting the assessment tool should base on the type of audience, experience, education, venue and subject matter. In adult learning theories and Andragogical learning phenomena, the most effective way of adult learning is self-directed and experiential learning, where a participant can experience the problem first hand and propose a solution for it. Such activities are more effective in groups since brainstorming can provide alternatives. The culture and environment of the organization can impact the training, if an organization has a culture that is redundant to change with no regards to self-improvement or learning activities; learning activities would not be fruitful and participants would yawn in even the most appropriate training session with a lot of exciting and job relevant activities. Learning methods range from one-sided lecture-like training to facilitator based learning sessions. Both methodologies have their pros and cons although both are still used widely in organizations depending on the type of training and intended audience. A one-sided training is suitable for learning sessions that are general in nature, for example, code of conduct or explaining a policy to the employees.
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Museum paper - Essay Example Adams is not only a photographer par excellence, he is also a famous environmentalist known for pushing preservationist agendas and working for the protection of the American natural heritage (Bowers, 2007). The sublime in nature is clearly evident in most of his works where the majesty of the natural environment is presented to the viewers unadulterated by colors. The collection on display at the Bowers Museum features not only pictures of nature but also of man and some which are in combination. Clearly, Adams was not looking at nature to the exclusion of human beings since he does take his own self portrait amongst natural surroundings even if it is just a shadow of his self which is imposed on nature. However, the images and the artist himself come with the implication that nature is certainly a fundamental part of who he is and what he thinks is important (Bowers, 2007). On the other hand, Chuck Close seems to be focusing on the art and wealth of effort which is required to produce a single work of art. While the works seem like pictures and images when seen from a distance, upon closer examination the art seems to dissolve into pixels that can be found on television or computer screens (OCMA, 2007). This I found to be quite magical since the image presented by the artists could change significantly depending on the distance I was standing away and the areas I was focusing on. Chuck CloseÃ¢â¬â¢s work does not focus on the elements of nature which surround us but rather it focuses on the greatest creation of nature, i.e. human beings. More exactly, it focuses on the human face in its many variations, colors, shapes and ages. For example, the Self-Portrait of the artist shows a middle aged man who is looking directly at the audience while Emma shows a young child who seems to be gazing into the distance rather than looking at the viewer (OCMA, 2007).
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Emergency assignment for the subject Supply Chain Management. Writer MUST be ON TIME. Writer also needs to send me references files which you used. Writer nee - Essay Example Some of the books will be Supply Chain Management: In theory and Practice, by Birgit Dam Jespersen and Tage Skjtt-Larsen, as well as another book called Supply Chain Management: Concepts and Cases, by Rahul V Altekar. While the first book discusses the basics that form the conception of supply chain management, the second book discusses various cases that help demonstrate the elements of this concept in a better way. Further, the journal articles will focus on the work produced by the Supply Chain Management Professionals, so as to gain an insight into this area of operational significance in the organisation. These journal articles will include Coordinated Supply Chain Management by D. J Thomas and P. M Griffin, for the European Journal of Operational Research. Apart from such articles, there will be a strong focus on Internet sources like www.bettermanagement.com which describes various strategies as well as business policies that support systems like supply chain management and knowledge management. Texan Foods is a company founded and based in Texas, near Amarillo. Born in the year 1941, this company has grown from strength to strength to consolidate its standing as one of the best gourmet chain which specialises in grocery products. Their line of products includes croissants, English muffins as well as exotic sandwich breads, buns and other baked goods like tortillas. Besides being a household name by the mid 90s with ample support from a former oil businessman, R.L (Buddy) Howlett, who was its founder and a successful entrepreneur, this company had come to employ a major supplier who went by name of Valley. (Autry, 2005)2 As a big manufacturing company, it has been demonstrated that Texan has a very poor system of supply chain management as far as its model of collaboration, planning, forecasting and replenishment (CPFR), is concerned. To start with, let us describe the exact nuances of supply chain management, in context of the CPFR model. Supply chain management (SCM) may be defined as that sphere of activities that takes place in context of planning, implementing, and controlling the operations. These operations or activities, in turn, are connected with the management of the supply chain so as to effectively cater to the requirements of the customer and gain complete satisfaction of the same through a focus on optimum ulisation of resources. (Atlekar, 2005)3 In this regard, supply chain management deals with all activities pertaining to the mobilisation, storage as well as an account of the semi finished and finished products that are of value to the end user. (Hugos, 2005)4 In this context, various scholars have also refered to this form and area of management as logistics as it connects the quantitative areas of assessment with the qualitative goal achievement progress of the organisation. These areas have been assessed in Texan, through inputs from two officials who are connected with the operational realities of the supply chain management system followed at Texan. Chapter 1.2: Problem Areas In this regard, Texan
Drug profiling assignment - Essay Example Forensic scientists employ several tests and techniques to provide evidence needed for the case. Analysis of samples is necessary to identify, quantify and drug profiling. The materials previously collected, 100 grams of white powder, the trace samples from the clothing of the suspects, the cling film and the mirror will all be subjected to analysis. Prior to the presumptive tests, physical description and sampling will be done. The physical characteristics such as texture, powder particle size, color, odor, taste and weight will be physically defined before a sample for analysis will be secured. It will be weighed and thoroughly homogenised, before a sample was taken. Presumptive analysis will provide the identification of the white powder collected from the table. Trace samples from the suspectsÃ¢â¬â¢ clothing can directly be analyzed using confirmatory tests. Colour test will bring initial data for the powderÃ¢â¬â¢s identity. Specific color changes give the positive result for the powderÃ¢â¬â¢s identity. An intense blue-violet color when the powder is made to react with 1% cobalt acetate, and 5% isopropylamine in methanol of Dillie-Koppanyi test will identify it as a barbiturate. Marquis test using dilute solution of methanal in sulphuric acid can give two types of results; if the colour changed to purple, the powder is heroin-based, if the test however yields an orange-brown colour, the powder is an amphetamine. Treating it with a Duquenois-Levine test reagent and a purple colour resulted, the powder is positive as marijuana. In Scott test, in which a solution of cobalt chloride is added in a 50:50 mixture of water and glycerol, a blue c olour positively identifies cocaine. This positive result can be confirmed by adding concentrated hydrochloric acid, liquid goes pink and then adding chloroform the blue reappears in the chloroform layer. Blue-purple in reaction with
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
The Battle of New Orleans - Article Example The British moved in for a predawn attack, but due to problems crossing the river were delayed until daylight. Nonetheless, the forces of one of the three sections, under the command of General Gibbs, continued with the original plan. The attack began after a signal of one rocket being fired from each of the two attacking sections. The British then began to charge into the American position but were met quickly with artillery fire that ripped through their lines. American rifle fire along with a continued slew of artillery managed to stop this advance. The British losses continued to be heavy, as every wave that attacked the American lines was fiercely repelled. Many British officers were killed during this part of the battle, including Pakenham and Gibbs. Keanes, commanding the reserve force of Highlanders, saw the devastation and soon moved to reinforce the attacking element. His wave met the same fate as the others, however, and suffered heavy losses. The attacking section that had not yet been met with defeat, however, was still well hidden amongst the fogs near the river. This section, under General Lambert, made its advance and nearly took the right side of the American line. Quickly, however, American forces fired back on this section and again brought heavy casualties while suppressing their advance successfully. However, the British did see some success on the opposite bank of the river, where they landed and were opposed by fatigued militia forces. A weak line existed overall on this side of the river and was only of much use because its naval guns near the river had contributed to the artillery fire that repelled the BritishÃ attack against JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s line. After the British broke this line, the success was short-lived, as the order to withdraw came in.Ã
Monday, July 22, 2019
Improvement store Case Study Essay Mrs. Debbie Morgan is a 45-year-old female who works as a stocking clerk for a local home improvement store. While she was at work today a large box of metal rivets fell from a 20-ft.-high overhead shelf, striking her outstretched arm and knocking her to the ground. The ambulance personnel reported that she had lost quite a bit of blood at the accident scene and was knocked out when they arrived. To minimize further hemorrhage, the paramedics applied a pressure bandage to her arm. You meet the paramedics as they bring Mrs. Morgan into the emergency room and begin to assess her for injuries. She is awake and alert, but complaining of severe left arm and back pain, plus she has a killer headache. To fully examine her injuries you remove four blood-soaked bandages from her arm. You notice a large open wound on her arm with what appears to be bone tissue sticking out of the skin. She also has bruises covering her left shoulder, left wrist, and lower back. To determine the extent of her injuries Mrs. Morgan undergoes several x-rays, which reveal the following 1) fracture of the left humerus at the proximal diaphysis, 2) depressed fracture of the occipital bone, 3) fracture of the 3rd lumbar vertebral body. Short Answer Questions 1. Define the following terms, used in the case and also in associated questions hemorrhage fracture proximal diaphysis 2. One way bones are classified is by their shape. How would you classify the bones fractured by Mrs. Morgan 3. The body of Mrs. Morgans vertebra is fractured. What type of bone tissue makes up the majority of the vertebral body Describe the structure and function of this type of bone. 4. The diaphysis of Mrs. Morgans humerus is fractured. What type of bone makes up the majority of the diaphysis of long bones like the humerus Describe the layers of bone tissue found here. 6. Within days after a fracture, a soft callus of fibrocartilage forms. What fibers are found in this type of cartilage Identify the cells required for fibrocartilaginous callus formation and list their functions. 7. As a fracture is repaired, new bone is added to the injury site. What term is used to describe the addition of new bone tissue Identify which bone cell is responsible for this process and explain how it occurs. 8. In the final stage of bone repair, some of the osseous tissue must be broken down and removed. What term is used to define the breaking down of osseous tissue Which bone cell would be best suited for this task 9.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Gadolinium-based Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesis SAMRAT MAZUMDAR Abstract Cancer is by far one of the most challenging diseases for centuries. In the US, it accounts for over a million deaths annually and is expected to rise in the coming future. Therefore, there is vital need to develop novel strategies, which can help in combating the disease at any level. Metallic nanoparticles present an interesting view, which can function as both therapeutic and diagnostic agents due to their unique properties. The main motive of the proposed work is development of gadolinium based magnetic nanoparticles, followed by their surface functionalization which may improve imaging and targeting outcomes. Doped Gadolinium nanoparticles will be prepared by co-precipitation method for optimum magnetic properties. The synthesized particles will be subjected to functionalization with suitable group for specific target in nature for cancer cells. Eventually,Ã in-vitroÃ studies will be carried out to validate the hyperthermia effect on cancer cells. 1. Introduction Overview Although, it is difficult to define cancer, but in simple terms, it is a group of related diseases which is characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation and spread, mostly due to loss of control in the cell cycle (PÃ ©rez-Herrero and FernÃ ¡ndez-Medarde, 2015). The most commonly detected cancers are lung cancer, breast cancer and skin cancer, etc. A variety of factors contributes to the disease progression, such as genetic changes, infections and exposure to carcinogens. In general, cancer is detected/diagnosed by various techniques like, blood tests, X-ray imaging, Computed Tomography (CT) scanning and Endoscopy etc. Conventional treatment strategies include surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. However, they possess numerous limitations especially dose-related side effects and toxicity (Brigger et al., 2002). Currently, researchers are looking towards newer approaches which are selective, non-invasive, non-toxic and effective. These efforts are led to the development o f experimental cancer therapies. These not only improves the curing rate but also, act as a supplement to the conventional therapies. However, it is still early to state that these alternatives can completely replace the existing treatment strategies and its effectiveness in clinical settings, are yet to be determined. Alternative approaches include Gene therapy (Vile et al., 2000), Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) (Dougherty et al., 1998), Hyperthermia (Urano, 1999) ,Targeted Nano-medicines (Xu et al., 2015). Recently, a tremendous amount of research is being carried out in the field of hyperthermia due to encouraging results and its potential for significantly lowered toxicity. Hyperthermia Ã¢â¬Å"HyperthermiaÃ¢â¬ is a very ancient technique which is now regaining popularity in the field of oncology (Seegenschmiedt and Vernon, 1995). It involves the use of heat energy to elevate the temperature inside a tumour tissue and subsequently kill the cancer cells. The desired temperature range for hyperthermia is 42Ã °-44Ã °C which is, greater than the physiological temperature (Wust et al., 2002).There is a variety of factors governing the effectiveness of hyperthermia which includes thermal variables, device characteristics, frequency, current and tumour morphology (Valdagni et al., 1988). At temperatures below 41Ã °C, blood flow increases while tissue oxygenation increases above 41Ã °C providing a dual effect against tumour. Once temperatures are increased above 42.5Ã °C-43Ã °C, the exposure time can be halved for every 1Ã °C rise to provide a similar heating efficiency however, excessive heating should be avoided. The heating device used for hyperthermia should be versatile, comfortable as well capable of exhibiting uniform heating patterns. The applied frequencies may range from 5-500 KHz (Lacroix et al., 2008) while a current of about 100-800A might be sufficient for heating. Studies suggest that enlarged tumour with poor vasculature might be more susceptible to heat treatment (Kim et al., 1982). Hyperthermia has a radiosensitizing effect which can be advantageous in combination with radiotherapy since most radioresistant cells are heat sensitive. Classification of Hyperthermia Direct heating/Extracellular method Heat is applied by means of external sources such as thermostatic water bath, infrared sauna and ultrasound. This approach is limited by the presence of biological barriers which is responsible for insulation. Therefore, excess heat is required to achieve the same which can trigger side effects (burns, bleeding). Indirect heating/Intracellular method Ã¢â¬â Provides a safer and effective means through the injection of nanoparticles followed by their internalization (Ningthoujam et al., 2012).Ex. Magnetic hyperthermia. Mechanism of Hyperthermia Primarily, hyperthermia induce apoptosis, necrosis or autophagy through multiple pathways to cells (Hurwitz and Stauffer, 2014). Reports suggest that it can deliver a higher amount of oxygen into the hypoxic tumour region through changes in blood perfusion. Generally, tumour cells express lower concentration of Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) in comparison to normal cells. Therefore, HSP-peptide complex levels can be increased significantly by the application of hyperthermia, further leading to anti-tumour immunity response (Kobayashi et al., 2014). Magnetic Hyperthermia In order to prevent damage to surrounding healthy tissues from the hyperthermia effect, nanoparticles should be confined to a defined area (tumour region). These are achieved through targeting of nanoparticles by functionalization and application of magnetic fields to specified regions (BaÃ ±obre-LÃ ³pez et al., 2013). Metallic magnetic nanoparticles under the influence of oscillating magnetic field undergo a change in magnetic moment attributed to Neel and Brownian fluctuations. These fluctuations are responsible for heat generation through friction, which might be effective in damaging the cancer cells. Limitations of Magnetic Hyperthermia There are technical problems which may act as a barrier towards effective treatment. The two main aspects include uniform heat distribution and desired target temperature (Brusentsova et al., 2005). Treatment might be a failure in case of insufficient thermal dose .There are no well-defined methods used to evaluate the temperature distribution in the target area but, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can be used to generate a temperature profile corresponding to hyperthermia. MRI can also be helpful in tracking the release of drug from a formulation (Tashjian et al., 2008). MRI Contrast Agents In the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system, most of the magnetic materials (iron based materials) act as T2 contrast agents which give rise to darkened image/negative contrast. Subsequently, this is mode is useful for tracking purpose. However, there are a few disadvantages which limit their usability in clinical settings. Firstly, the dark images accompanied by low signal intensity may often lead to misdiagnosis and secondly, the large magnetic susceptibility can produce MRI artifacts making it increasingly difficult to determine the exact state of the injury or damage. T1 contrast agents (Gadolinium, Manganese) provide a brighter signal, which can be easily observed in the MRI due to their paramagnetic nature which do not disrupt the magnetic homogeneity (Gallo and Long, 2015). Through nanotechnology, it is also possible to simultaneously carry out imaging and drug delivery further, overcoming the limitations posed by the conventional system. 2. Hypothesis/Rationale The paramagnetic Gadolinium exhibits excellent MRI imaging capabilities which can be exploited for several purposes and possesses high magnetic moment. Due to its limited inter-atomic interactions, it is unable produce hyperthermia. We hypothesize that by modifying the properties of gadolinium, it may serve a dual purpose i.e. hyperthermia and imaging. Furthermore, these particles can be tagged with various targeting moieties or loaded with anti-cancer drugs to increase the effectiveness of the therapy. 3. Objectives On the basis of above background, the objectives are as follows. Synthesis and Optimization of Gadolinium-based ferrite nanoparticles. Surface modification of prepared nanoparticles. Folate conjugation to the modified surface coating. Optimization of hyperthermia Characterization and in-vitro studies 4. Plan of work 4.1 Synthesis and Optimization of Gadolinium-based ferrite nanoparticles Gadolinium based ferrite nanoparticles will be synthesised using suitable mechanisms such as chemical co-precipitation method and optimized. 4.2 Surface modification of prepared nanoparticles Surface modification will be carried out by layer by layer (LBL) synthesis. 4.3 Folate conjugation to the modified surface coating Since most cancer cells overexpress folate receptor, folic acid will be conjugated to nanoparticles through amine functionalization. 4.4 Optimization of hyperthermia The process will be optimized by monitoring the parameters affecting it. 4.5 Characterization and in-vitro studies 4.5.1 Characterization The developed nanoparticle will be characterized by the following techniques. Particle size analysis -Zetasizer. Chemical Composition determination-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Structural and Crystalline analysis- X-ray Diffraction pattern. Surface Morphology-Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy. Magnetic Property Testing- Vibrating Sample Magnetometry. 4.5.2 In vitro studies Cytotoxicity studies Ã¢â¬â MTT Assay will be performed to assess the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of nanoparticles. In-vitro hyperthermia studies with cancer cell lines Cellular uptake studies- Performed using Transmission electron microscopy and Electron Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies. 5. Expected Outcomes The developed nanoparticles might exhibit Improved magnetic hyperthermia in comparison to unmodified gadolinium particle. Target localization may be observed through Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 6. Future Prospects Based on in-vitro results in-vivo studies can be performed in animals. This treatment modality can be combined with Photodynamic Therapy and Chemotherapy for better results. 7. References BaÃ ±obre-LÃ ³pez, M., Teijeiro, A. Rivas, J. 2013. Magnetic Nanoparticle-Based Hyperthermia For Cancer Treatment. Reports Of Practical Oncology Radiotherapy, 18, 397-400. Brigger, I., Dubernet, C. Couvreur, P. 2002. Nanoparticles In Cancer Therapy And Diagnosis. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 54, 631-651. Brusentsova, T. N., Brusentsov, N. A., Kuznetsov, V. D. Nikiforov, V. N. 2005. Synthesis And Investigation Of Magnetic Properties Of Gd-Substituted MnÃ¢â¬âZn Ferrite Nanoparticles As A Potential Low-T C Agent For Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia. Journal Of Magnetism And Magnetic Materials, 293, 298-302. Dougherty, T. J., Gomer, C. J., Henderson, B. W., Jori, G., Kessel, D., Korbelik, M., Moan, J. Peng, Q. 1998. Photodynamic Therapy. Journal Of The National Cancer Institute, 90, 889-905. Gallo, J. Long, N. J. 2015. Nanoparticulate Mri Contrast Agents. The Chemistry Of Molecular Imaging, 199-224. Hurwitz, M. Stauffer, P. Hyperthermia, Radiation And Chemotherapy: The Role Of Heat In Multidisciplinary Cancer Care. Seminars In Oncology, 2014. Elsevier, 714-729. Kim, J. H., Hahn, E. W. Ahmed, S. A. 1982. Combination Hyperthermia And Radiation Therapy For Malignant Melanoma. Cancer, 50, 478-482. Kobayashi, T., Kakimi, K., Nakayama, E. Jimbow, K. 2014. Antitumor Immunity By Magnetic Nanoparticle-Mediated Hyperthermia. Nanomedicine, 9, 1715-1726. Lacroix, L. M., Carrey, J. Respaud, M. 2008. A Frequency-Adjustable Electromagnet For Hyperthermia Measurements On Magnetic Nanoparticles. Rev Sci Instrum, 79, 093909. Ningthoujam, R., Vatsa, R., Kumar, A., Pandey, B., Banerjee, S. Tyagi, A. 2012. Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles: Concepts, Synthesis And Application In Cancer Hyperthermia. Functionalized Materials, 229-260. PÃ ©rez-Herrero, E. FernÃ ¡ndez-Medarde, A. 2015. Advanced Targeted Therapies In Cancer: Drug Nanocarriers, The Future Of Chemotherapy. European Journal Of Pharmaceutics And Biopharmaceutics, 93, 52-79. Seegenschmiedt, M. Vernon, C. 1995. A Historical Perspective On Hyperthermia In Oncology. Thermoradiotherapy And Thermochemotherapy. Springer. Tashjian, J. A., Dewhirst, M. W., Needham, D. Viglianti, B. L. 2008. Rationale For And Measurement Of Liposomal Drug Delivery With Hyperthermia Using Non-Invasive Imaging Techniques. International Journal Of Hyperthermia, 24, 79-90. Urano, M. 1999. Invited Review: For The Clinical Application Of Thermochemotherapy Given At Mild Temperatures. International Journal Of Hyperthermia, 15, 79-107. Valdagni, R., Liu, F.-F. Kapp, D. S. 1988. Important Prognostic Factors Influencing Outcome Of Combined Radiation And Hyperthermia. International Journal Of Radiation Oncology* Biology* Physics, 15, 959-972. Vile, R., Russell, S. Lemoine, N. 2000. Cancer Gene Therapy: Hard Lessons And New Courses. Gene Therapy, 7, 2-8. Wust, P., Hildebrandt, B., Sreenivasa, G., Rau, B., Gellermann, J., Riess, H., Felix, R. Schlag, P. 2002. Hyperthermia In Combined Treatment Of Cancer. The Lancet Oncology, 3, 487-497. Xu, X., Ho, W., Zhang, X., Bertrand, N. Farokhzad, O. 2015. Cancer Nanomedicine: From Targeted Delivery To Combination Therapy. Trends In Molecular Medicine, 21, 223-232. 8. Requirements Chemicals Instruments
Climate Change Will Affect Invertebrates And Vertebrates Environmental Sciences Essay Global climate change is predicted to cause temperatures to increase by 1.4-5.8Ãâ¹Ã ¡C by the year 2100. This will likely have a profound impact upon many land animals. Here, four animal groups were selected for review; amphibians, insects, polar bears and birds. Many species will most probably move further north, where conditions will be cooler. Changes in breeding will occur, with many species breeding earlier, as already demonstrated by amphibian and bird species. Higher temperatures are likely to benefit insects, causing higher metabolic rates and increasing their numbers. Alternatively, a warmer future for polar bears doesnt look promising. With rapid loss of sea-ice, many individuals are suffering, as obtaining food is becoming increasingly difficult. Predicting the likely impacts of climate change is complex as each species will be affected differently. Further research is needed to predict the impacts of rainfall patterns and extreme weather events upon the survival of lan d animals. Abstract 2 Global climate change is well under way, with global mean annual temperatures set to increase by 1.4-5.8Ãâ¹Ã ¡C by the year 2100. This major environmental change has the ability to influence both species distribution and extinction rates. Here, four animal taxa were selected for review; amphibians, insects, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and birds. Northern distribution shifts are likely to become increasingly common across all groups as species exploit new habitats and seek cooler conditions. Phenological changes will take place such as earlier breeding in amphibians and birds, though it is uncertain about what this will mean for their persistence. Climate-facilitated diseases may influence extinctions, such as Saprolegnia ferax, which causes mortality in amphibian embryos. Higher temperatures are likely to benefit insects, causing an increase in flight-dependent activities. Alternatively, a warmer future for polar bears doesnt look promising. With rapid loss of sea-ice, the body conditions of many individuals are declining, and desperate foraging strategies such as cannibalism have been reported. Predicting climate induced effects is complex as responses will be specie-specific and potential evolutionary adaptations need to be taken into account. Further research is needed to predict the impacts of precipitation and extreme weather events upon the fitness of terrestrial species. 1.0 Introduction Long term global climate change is currently at the forefront of scientific interest. Climatic variation is undoubtedly a natural process, but the balance of evidence available suggests that excessive human activity has been the dominant reason for the recently observed dramatic changes in climate (Telemeco et al, 2009). Records have shown that since the 1970s, global mean annual temperatures have increased significantly, rising by approximately 0.15Ãâ¹Ã ¡C per decade (Beaumont and Hughes, 2002). It has been predicted that this trend will continue, and global mean annual temperatures are likely to have increased by 1.4-5.8 Ãâ¹Ã ¡C by the year 2100 (op.cit). Some researchers believe that such temperature rises will be the largest anthropogenic disturbance ever placed upon natural ecosystems (Deutsch et al, 2008). Whilst this warming has received a great deal of attention, changes in precipitation patterns and the frequency of extreme weather events will accompany this temperatur e variation. These recently devised predictions are causing immense concern amongst scientists, because assuming that they are correct, the biodiversity across the globe will be altered significantly. Distribution, the geographical occurrence or range of an organism, is mostly controlled by climate, and therefore, it is anticipated that this will be notably affected in numerous species (Pearson and Dawson, 2003). Studies have shown that global climate change has already taken effect and has been the cause of numerous distribution shifts observed in a variety of organisms during the past 30 years (Thomas et al, 2004). A study carried out by Hitch and Leberg (2006) found that distributions of North American bird species were moving significantly further north, most probably as a result of increasing temperatures. The extent to which animals react to global climate change, whether it be through changing their distribution or reacting in others ways, will depend largely upon several fac tors. The first is the geographical location of the species and the second being the presence of particular biological traits. These traits are related to factors such as genetic make-up, ecology and life history stages, influencing an individuals vulnerability to climate change. Specific traits include dependence upon a particular microhabitat, dispersal limitation due to geographical barriers and low genetic diversity (Foden et al, 2008).Therefore, not all species will respond in similar ways, even when exposed to the same climatic conditions, meaning that the persistence of some species will be threatened more than others. Extinction, due to climate change, will be the likely reality for some species, and it has been estimated that 15-37% of terrestrial species will be committed to extinction by the year 2050 (Thomas et al, 2004). Research is currently very much centred on trying to identify those most at risk and looking for possible ways to reduce predicted extinction rates. Th ough much effort is being made, minimizing the emission of greenhouse gases, primarily carbon dioxide, is the single ultimate action which could save a vast number of species (op.cit). The publication of a growing number of studies regarding extinction in relation to climate change is making humans increasingly aware of the vital actions that need to be taken in an attempt to conserve the earths biodiversity. 1.1 Aims The aim of this review is to evaluate how global climate change will affect the distribution and status of both terrestrial vertebrate and invertebrate species. Status is quite a broad term but in context of biology and hence this review, it primarily refers to conservation status; examining how likely the animal is to become extinct in the future. Predicting the status of an organism is complicated and requires information regarding various aspects of its ecology, such as its habitat, foraging strategy and breeding behaviour. Research concerning a variety of animal groups will be examined, so that a wide range of potential effects across the animal kingdom can be identified. Here, four taxonomic groupings have been selected for review, due to their high vulnerability to climate change and/or high environmental importance. These taxa are also heavily represented in the available literature. The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) has been focused on due to its rapidly changing ice habitat. Insects and amphibians were selected mainly due to their ectothermic nature and are therefore highly sensitive to temperature. Finally birds were chosen due to their close association with climate, especially in migratory species. Although not every animal class has been reviewed, it is hoped that this literature review can provide a balanced evaluation with regards to an area of science which is causing both increased social interest and concern at the present time. 2.0 Amphibians It is widely accepted that amphibian populations are declining dramatically around the globe, with an estimated 43% of the total species currently in decline (Lips et al, 2008). This has prompted a satisfactory number of studies, which have researched the possible factors responsible for amphibian reductions (Corn, 2005). Though climate change as a cause was considered relatively understudied in 2003, it has since received an increasing amount of attention (Carey and Alexander, 2003). Amphibians are terrestrial ectotherms, having life history stages which are very much sensitive to both environmental temperature and precipitation (op.cit). This suggests that they should be highly vulnerable to climate change, but past records have shown that existing amphibians have descended from ancestors that were able to cope with climatic extremes and variability (op.cit). Nevertheless, it still remains highly important to discover if, and how these animals will be affected by global climate cha nge in the future. Understanding links between amphibian distribution and climate change is essential for their conservation, though relatively few studies have investigated this. Girardello et al (2010) undertook a study in an attempt to discover the likely implications of climate change on the distribution of amphibians in Italy. It was confirmed that climate greatly affects species distribution and precipitation plays a crucial role in determining range shifts (op.cit). Negative predictions were made in that the distributions of many amphibian species could reduce considerably. Mediterranean species such as Rana temporaria and those found in mountain habitats are of a main concern, as it was found that their distributions could decrease, despite the fact they may well colonize new areas (op.cit). One of the reasons for this is that many species in these particular locations are highly climate specialised (op.cit). Therefore, any small changes in climate could prove to be damaging in terms of their distributions. Distribution reductions are not only predicted for species in Italy but for those in other countries too. It is expected that the golden striped salamander (Chioglossa lusitanica), native to Spain and Portugal, will constrict its distribution between the years 2050 and 2080 (Corn, 2005). Research regarding 42 amphibian species throughout Europe produced somewhat more promising conclusions. It was found that temperature predictions for 2050 are not likely to be a major threat to this group of animals, and it was also concluded that they can be expected to expand their distribution (ArauÃÅ'Ã jo et al, 2006). This is due to the fact that the warming of northern European areas will create new habitats, which species can exploit (op.cit). However, this will only be possible if the ability to disperse is unlimited. (Figure 1 illustrates the predicted species extinctions with no dispersal/unlimited dispersal in Italy). The involvements of factors which prevent or reduce dispersal, such as habitat loss, will only decrease range size, possibly contributing to amphibian population declines in the future (op.cit). Figure 1 Projected amphibian species losses (no dispersal) and gains (unlimited dispersal) in Italy, Girardello et al (2010). Unfortunately, it appears likely that during the time leading up to 2050, habitats will be further fragmented and destroyed. This does, however, assist current conservation, indicating that to aid the persistence of amphibian species; both existing and potential habitats must be protected and managed in a way that will allow optimum dispersal. Given that the current conservation status of 32% of known amphibian species is either threatened or extinct, understanding their relationship with climate change is vitally necessary (http://www.iucnredlist.org/ initiatives/ amphibians/ analysis). There are various ways in which a changing climate could affect the status of amphibian species, through both direct and indirect methods. For climate to have a direct negative effect, the levels of temperature, moisture and UVB (ultraviolet-b) radiation would need to exceed the lethal limit of a given species (Carey Alexander, 2003). Although recent studies have shown a correlation between amphibia n declines and climate change, there has been little evidence to suggest that amphibians have been subjected to lethal levels of environmental variables (op.cit; Corn, 2005). There are a number of ways in which climate change could indirectly affect individuals. Successful breeding is essential to ensure the survival of any species. It has been suggested that climate change could interfere with reproduction by causing breeding to occur earlier. Tryjanowski et al (2003) found that the first spawning dates of R.temporaria and Bufo bufo shifted 8-9 days earlier between 1978 and 2002; correlating with warmer spring temperatures. This could be both detrimental and beneficial. It may provide more time for growth whilst reducing exposure to UVB radiation (Corn, 2005). On the other hand, it could also cause exposure to extreme spring temperatures (op.cit). Whilst some studies have shown significant trends towards earlier breeding, there have also been a similar proportion of findings conclu ding that climate has no influence upon breeding time (op.cit). Disease has been positively identified as a major cause for amphibian declines, and climate change could potentially facilitate the spread of infectious diseases, causing species to become more susceptible (Lips et al, 2008). Chytridiomycosis is a disease caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, and has been responsible for amphibian extinctions (Carey and Alexander, 2003). However, Lips et al (2008) found no evidence that climate change is the cause behind outbreaks of this disease. The chytrid fungus most likely prefers cooler temperatures and requires an aquatic environment for transmission (Corn, 2005). Therefore, the current trend towards a drier, warmer climate is not likely to encourage outbreaks of this disease (op.cit). A second fungus, Saprolegnia ferax, has been reported to cause mortality in particular amphibian species. Bufo boreas appears to only be susceptible to this pathogen in the presence of UVB radiation. Kiesecker et al (2001) concluded that low levels of precipitation during El NiÃ ±o southern oscillation years caused the embryos of B.boreas to develop in shallower water. This in turn exposed them to extreme UVB radiation and as a consequence, the fungus caused mortality (op.cit). Although the association between current amphibian declines and climate remains uncertain, future climate change will inevitably provide serious challenges for amphibians. Whilst many of these challenges can be scientifically predicted, predicting how species will react proves to be more complex. Unfortunately, only time will tell which species will survive and which species will fail to persist under the pressure of a rapidly change global climate. 3.0 Insects Insects are the most abundant group of animals on the planet, making up two thirds of all described extant animal species (Stange and Ayres, 2010). Like amphibians, insects are ectothermic so are also strongly influenced by external temperature and other climatic factors. They are extremely important within natural ecosystems due to their position at the bottom of the food chain, and play vital roles in processes such as decomposition and pollination. Insects also have economic involvements, with some species acting as pests and vectors of diseases. Therefore, research focusing on how insects respond to climate change is beneficial for both the natural environment and human economy. Since the 1990s many studies regarding insects in connection to climate change have been carried out (Musolin, 2007). It is expected to exert powerful effects upon abundance, physiology and distribution, with effects becoming more prominent as the severity of climate change increases (Stange and Ayres, 20 10). A change in the distribution of insects has been one of the most frequently reported responses (Musolin, 2007). Those species living in northern temperate regions appear to be expanding their range northwards or moving to higher altitudes (Maes et al, 2010). Such shifts in distribution have been recorded in a vast number of species. In the year 2000, the distribution of the Southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula) in Japan was found to have moved 70km further north of that recorded in the early 1960s (op.cit). Other Heteroptera species, such as those living in Southern Europe, have been recently discovered in the north, probably as a result of climatic variation (op.cit). In Britain, species of Orthoptera have also extended their range. The unusually warm summers of 1989/1990 caused the distribution of the long winged conehead (Conocephalus discolor) in north-western Europe to progress north and east (Cannon, 1998). The distribution of Lepidoptera has been well documented, ow ing to this groups high fecundity and dispersal ability, allowing distribution to be followed over a relatively short time period (Roy and Sparks, 2000). Observations of Lepidoptera species have been carried out for over 20 years in Finland and prominent northern range expansions have been recorded (Stange and Ayres, 2010). With many distribution shifts having already occurred, it is relatively easy to predict how a warmer future will affect present insect distributions. Range expansion towards the poles is most likely to become increasingly common, as insects seek out new habitats. A change in geographical distribution is just one way in which climate change has influenced, and will continue to influence, insects. A broad range of additional climate change induced effects, revealed through recent studies, will most likely impact upon the future survival and fitness of many species. High temperature reduces the time that is needed for insects to raise their body temperature to the f light activity threshold (Beaumont and Hughes, 2002). As an outcome of this, there may be an increase in activities that rely upon flight, such as mate location and egg laying (op.cit). As a result, many of the predicted impacts upon butterfly species have been positive. However, other aspects of climate change, such as drought, may have undesired effects. Prolonged arid conditions can have a negative impact upon host plant growth and egg survival (Roy and Sparks, 2000). One of the most recognized changes observed in butterflies is advancement in their first appearance (op.cit). This has been observed in most British butterfly species, showing a strong correlation with elevated temperatures. It has been predicted that per 1Ãâ¹Ã ¡C temperature increase, the first appearance of butterflies could advance by 2-10 days (op.cit). Advances in appearance have also been demonstrated in other insect groups. One month advancement in the spring appearance of Heteroptera species was found in Japan, and was also a consequence of soaring temperatures (Musolin, 2007). Other responses noted in insects include behavioural responses in Heteroptera, though they havent been frequently discovered. In Italy, a large number of seed bugs entered urban buildings during the summer. Apparently, this was done in an attempt to escape the harsh high summer temperatures and to find more suitable conditions for aestivation (op.cit). The diversities of dragonfly, butterfly and grasshopper species are expected to decrease in Belgium, if the predicted climate scenarios for 2100 are correct (Maes, 2010). Mortality can be one of the direct consequences of temperature as insects have specie-specific upper and lower temperature limits. In peacock (Inachis io) and comma (Polygonia c-album) butterflies, the proportions of individuals reaching adulthood differed dramatically with varying temperature (Bryant et al, 1997). 60% survived at 15-30Ãâ¹Ã ¡C, 0% at 9Ãâ¹Ã ¡C and 20-40% at 34Ãâ¹Ã ¡C ( op.cit). Whilst such implications of global climate change are worrying, there may be some potential benefits. Metabolic rate is expected to double with each 10Ãâ¹Ã ¡C increase and mortality due to cold temperatures during the winter many reduce (Stange and Ayres, 2010). An increase in insect abundance is most probable and can be supported by recent outbreaks such as the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) in Central Europe (Cannon, 1998). The extent to which insects are susceptible to extinction will depend partly upon their geographical location. Those inhabiting the tropics are likely to be most at risk as they are highly sensitive to temperature and are already living fairly close to their upper thermal limits (Deutsch et al, 2008). Population growth rates in the tropics are predicted to decrease by up to 20%, further reducing fitness (op.cit). Biological traits which will cause species to have a greater extinction risk include reduced dispersal ability and low temperature toleranc e. (op.cit). Most species which possess such characteristics inhabit low latitude areas. Unfortunately, whilst tropical areas are the most vulnerable, they are also the parts of the world which harbour the greatest biodiversity. In comparison, those insects in mid-high latitude areas are expected to experience increased population growth rates (op.cit). At higher latitudes, organisms are living at temperatures that are cooler than their optimum temperatures, so global warming could potentially enhance their fitness (op.cit). It can be seen that much effort has been made in an attempt to understand the links between insects and global climate change, and research will continue to try and establish which species are of greatest conservation concern. However, a key consideration which will play a role in extinctions is the extent to which species will be able to adapt (Cannon, 1998). Unfortunately, this is tremendously complicated to predict and as a result, many studies often overlook , or some have even exaggerated potential evolutionary adaptations. During the quaternary period, large-scale fluctuations in climate occurred, but the insect fossil record provides no evidence for large-scale evolutionary change during this time (op.cit). Many studies have also focused heavily upon temperature effects and have poorly investigated how rainfall and moisture could impact insects. However, this is mainly due to lack of information, as making predictions about rainfall patterns is relatively difficult. It can be expected that climate change will increase the abundance and distribution of the majority of insects but it must be remembered that responses will be specie-specific and care must be taken to avoid over-generalising predicted responses. Effort must be made to enhance our understandings, whilst aiming to fill current gaps in knowledge. 4.0 Polar Bears The polar bear is often regarded as a marine mammal. Although this animal is quite efficient at exploiting marine habitats, it cannot survive within marine waters. Therefore this large predator can be more appropriately referred to as a terrestrial mammal as it lacks the specific adaptations possessed by true marine mammals such seals. Arctic sea-ice is critical to the survival of polar bears, as they depend upon it for numerous aspects of their ecology (Sterling and Derocher, 1993). It acts as a substrate on which to make long distance movements, provides access to maternal denning areas and is a platform for mating (op.cit). Most importantly, the ice allows polar bears to hunt and feed upon their primary prey; ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) (Regehr et al, 2010). Therefore, changes to sea-ice habitat are expected to have a dramatic impact upon the survival and reproduction of individuals, ultimately affecting the status of the polar bear as a spe cies. With global climate change well underway, changes to arctic ice have already been documented. Since 1978, 14% of the total amount of ice cover has already been lost (Derocher et al, 2004). Thinning of ice is occurring and sea ice is breaking earlier in the year and freezing later. It has been speculated that in as little as 100 years, the arctic ice cap may disappear completely (Sterling and Derocher, 1993). Numerous studies have demonstrated how changes in sea-ice, undoubtedly influenced by rising global temperatures, are causing polar bears to suffer as a result. Polar bears prefer to hunt on ice which lies over the continental shelf, as the waters here are more productive than arctic basin waters (Regeher et al, 2010). Therefore, longer ice free periods over this area could lead to reduced foraging success and in turn could impact survival and reproduction. Between 2001 and 2005, declines in polar bear survival were observed (op.cit). This observation was linked to longer i ce free periods over the continental shelf. It forced individuals to spend more time hunting on ice situated over less productive waters and caused some to seek alternative prey on land (Stirling and Parkinson, 2006). In western Hudson Bay, Canada, the sea-ice now melts completely each year, giving polar bears no other choice but to spend a proportion of the year ashore (Regehr et al, 2010). Individuals on land suffer food shortages. Ice free periods in 2004 and 2005 were associated with rare behaviour (op.cit). There were incidences of cannibalism and even starvation, indicating the severity of food unavailability (op.cit). In addition, living on land increases the exposure to humans, further enhancing their risk (Sterling and Derocher, 1993). Research concerning female polar bears has produced somewhat disturbing conclusions. Not only are the weights of females decreasing (figure 2), reducing cub survival and reproduction rates, but it is expected that within 100 years most female s in Western Hudson Bay will be unable to reach the minimum body mass required to rear viable offspring (Derocher et al, 2004). Figure 2 Mean estimated mass of lone (and thus possibly pregnant) adult female polar bears in Western Hudson Bay,1980-2004 (dashed line indicates fit of linear regression), (Sterling and Parkinson, 2006). Thinning of ice is also occurring due to climate change. Thinner ice moves more quickly which could mean that polar bears need to use more energy to stay in contact with their preferred habitats (Derocher et al, 2004). Ice of reduced thickness also breaks up more easily. It has been shown that polar bears completely abandon ice and move to land when the concentration of ice drops below 50% (Derocher et al, 2004). This is most probably due to the increased costs of locomotion which are associated with walking over fragmented ice (op.cit). Considering that ice is required for long-distance movements, changes in ice may influence the distribution of polar bears. Large areas of open water due to lack of ice in addition to strong currents, may function as barriers, preventing the movement of polar bears, as implicated in South-eastern Baffin Island and Eastern Beaufort Sea (Sterling and Derocher, 1993). Through the assessment of a variety of studies, it can be seen that the future for pol ar bears within the midst of climate change does not look hopeful. They are highly specialised mammals, are already listed as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act and their habitat is declining rapidly (Derocher, 2010). The population most at risk is that in Beaufort Sea, as it is experiencing severe nutritional stress. Drastic declines for this population are predicted and it may even vanish by the end of the century (Hunter, 2010). However, research has shown that there is still time to avoid such a scenario, providing effort is made to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This indicates that the future of this species lies solely in the hands of policy makers, who have the supremacy to implement the nesseccary changes needed for not only the preservation of this species, but for many more too. 5.0 Birds Local variation in climate has long been recognised as an important factor affecting birds, but addressing how they will cope with long-term global climate change has only recently been attempted (Crick, 2004). Migratory birds have been of great interest, and this isnt surprising, considering that regular long-distance flights enable individuals to exploit various climates in different locations around the globe. Warmer winters are predicted to cause a slight increase in the number of short-distance migrant and resident bird species, whilst there will be a strong decline in the number of long-distance migrants (Lemoine and BoÃÅ'Ãâ hning-Gaese, 2003). This will likely be due to the increased competition resulting from resident bird species benefiting from the warmer conditions (op.cit). Migratory birds are also thought to be affected by mistiming, a result of climate change. This is when birds fail to breed at the time when their main food supply is most abundant (Both et al, 2006) . A study concerning the long-distance migratory pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) showed that populations declined by 90% in 20 years as a consequence of this (op.cit). However, on a more positive note, it has been suggested that migratory birds are faced with a lower extinction risk that sedentary species, due to their high mobility (Sekercioglu et al, 2008). With the forecast of an intermediate climate change scenario (surface warming of 2.8Ãâ¹Ã ¡C), it can be expected that 5% of sedentary species will become extinct, compared to 1% of long-distance migrants (op.cit). Global climate change appears to be causing birds to lay their eggs earlier. Data derived from the British Trust of Ornithology Nest Record Scheme revealed that 51 UK species showed trends towards earlier laying over a 25 year period (Crick, 2004). These trends were apparent throughout a variety of bird groupings including seed eaters, corvids and water birds (op.cit). The pied flycatcher exhibited an increase in egg and clutch size when eggs were laid earlier, indicating that warmer temperatures may be advantageous (op.cit). By the year 2080, it has been estimated that laying dates will be earlier for 75% of bird species (Crick and Sparks, 1999). This is a positive prediction as the advancement of laying dates suggests that birds are coping with temperature rises (Both et al, 2004). It may also mean that the incidence of mistiming may be reduced as the timing of hatching will be brought closer to that of peak food supply. In terms of distribution, elevational distribution shifts are probable. Pounds et al (1999) studied the mountain cloud forests of Costa Rica. It was shown that global warming had caused the average altitude at the base of the orographic cloud base to rise. This resulted in the colonization of previously cloud forest areas by birds from lower altitudes (Crick, 2004). There are concerns that such changes could have a detrimental impact upon some species. Through modellin g in the UK it has been suggested that species such as the snow bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis) may contract their range or even vanish from current breeding areas in the mountainous zones of the Grampians, Scotland (op.cit). Sekercioglu et al (2008) undertook a study to discover the impact of elevational limitations on the extinction risk of land birds (87% of all bird species). It was found that limitations in elevation actually accounted for 97% of the probability of a species being in a World Conservation Union category of extinction risk (op.cit). Using a model that combined elevational limitations and four habitat loss scenarios, it was predicted that 400-550 avian land species will be extinct and a further 2150 will be at risk, under an intermediate climate change scenario for 2100 (Figure 3 and Figure 4). Figure 3 The number of world landbird species estimated to be extinct by 2100, on the basis of different surface warming estimates, three possible shifts in lower elevational limit and four Millennium Assessment habitat change scenarios (Sekercioglu et al, 2008). Figure 4 The number of world landbird species estimated to be at risk of extinction (near threatened or threatened) by 2100, on the basis of different surface warming estimates, three possible shifts in lower elevational limit and four Millennium Assessment habitat change scenarios (Sekercioglu et al, 2008). 6.0 Conclusion Although most responses to global climate change are expected to be specie-specific, potential distributional changes appear to be quite uniform. Northern distribution shifts are likely to become increasingly common as species seek cooler climates. Elevational distributional changes will also occur, though elevational limitations in birds may increase their extinction risk. Impacts may range from phenological changes such as earlier breeding, to mortality resulting from temperatures exceeding thermal limits. Insects could potentia
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Day 1 Once upon a time high above the earth, fluffy white clouds drifted through the atmosphere. In the clouds lived a family Droplet of water, round and content with life. For as long as I could remember, I spent my days lying on my back, relaxing and soaking up the sun's warm rays. One day, I took my usual place in the sun but the light didn't seem to be as bright. In fact, as the day went on, it grew darker and darker, loud claps of thunder shook the cloud, and the Droplet felt as if he were getting so heavy he could hardly move. This is called precipitation. Suddenly, I felt myself falling from the cloud. Down, down, down he fell, farther and father from home. At last I landed on the earth, in the dark green foliage of the rainforest. Around me as far as I could see were tall trees, dense green leaves, red mushrooms and multicolored insects of every shape and size. Strange creatures surrounded him, and the sounds and sights were like nothing I had ever seen or heard before. All I was sure of was that I wanted to go back home. But how? Day 2 It is now day 2 3:00 am and I am going to be out of the ocean at 12:00 pm. I have changed from an infant into a primary. I am having so much fun sailing across the ocean. It is now 12: am and I am 12hrs away from being on land. It is now 3:00 pm and I am tired of sailing but I have to keep pushing. I am having so much fun. It is now 5:00 pm and I?m rushing hoping I will get finish early I can see the land and I?m almost there. All I have to do is reach the land. I?m there finally all sweaty and wet. Day 3 I?m on the step to soaking in the ground and I?m draining in the ground. I?m waiting to get cleaned all of a sudden a worm comes and eat me. I guest the worm didn?t see me there so I bang on his yelling ?Hey you umm wormy can I get out of here pl-ease?
Friday, July 19, 2019
DoodleÃ¢â¬â¢s Determination Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the short story Ã¢â¬Å"The Scarlet IbisÃ¢â¬ by James Hurst, Doodle is an Ã¢â¬Ëugly ducklingÃ¢â¬â¢ of a little boy and an invalid. Despised by, and an embarassment to his older brother, Doodle is a seeming candidate for low self-esteem. He has no friends and rarely leaves the house. His older brother begins to take interest in DoodleÃ¢â¬â¢s physical progress and takes him under his wing. Through DoodleÃ¢â¬â¢s battle to earn his brothers respect he shows extreme courage ad determination. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Doodle is determined to learn to walk. His brother is ashamed of his physical inabilities, so he decides to teach him to walk. He takes Doodle outside and practices with him. In the beginning, Doodle becomes discouraged and insists that it is impossible. The doctors say he cannot walk and he believes this without question. As he begins to further progress, he practices without complaint and actually becomes more confident in himself. Ã¢â¬Å"... IÃ¢â¬â¢d paint for him a picture of us as old me, white-haired, him with a long white beard and me still pulling him around in (his) go-cart. This never failed to make him try again.Ã¢â¬ his brother recalls. Once Doodlle realizes that walking is is a feasible and attainable goal, he begins to do it for his own benefit, as well as his brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Doodle is determined to please his brother. Throughout the time when Doodle does not have faith in his ability to walk, he persists anyway. This is because he wants to make his brother happy . As long as his brother is spending time with him, and it is still apparent to Doodle that it is because he cares, Doodle will do anything to maintain this relationship.Doodle doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know of his brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s selfish reasons to spend time with
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Evaluation of the soil management strategies in the India The more time goes past, the more man starts realising how the management and the way we threat soils is important to insure its preservation and conservation. Nowadays, around 9. 4 million hectares of soil, which represent the 0. 5% of the land present on our planet, is irreparably damaged and has no longer any biological function. In other words, it can no longer be used in any useful way to provide food or other elements to the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s tenants.There are though, two factors that influence soil degradation; the human factor and the natural one. The most impactful one is the human one, as we tend to create disequilibrium in the rate at which soil forms and at which it is eroded or degraded. This is due to the fact that farmers work the soil too frequently or misunderstand and mismanage their lands. On the other hand, erosion and degradation, which embody the natural factors, are part of natureÃ¢â¬â¢s cycle and over ti me, they do not create imbalances.In poorer countries, farmers use subsistence farming and they are in a way constricted to do so, as they not only lack of economical resources to buy machinery and conditioners, but also because the quality of the soil often doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t give them the opportunity to be able to work the land more intensively. In the regions of West Bengal located in the northwest of India to take an example, the density of the population is so high that farmers only can use their little land holding to produce enough in order to feed themselves and their families.This way of managing the soil is called subsistence farming and is also used in the entire southeast of India, where the soil is so degraded that the population has no other choice but to use this agricultural strategy named sedentary farming. It involves farming always at the same place, living there and getting crops relying uniquely on labour and not on any capital investments. In India we can find a ve ry large division, varying from economical to socio-political, and even agricultural.Up in the Northwest of India, within the hills of Jaipur in Rajasthan, intensive commercial farmers are predominant as the country represents the fourth biggest agricultural power of the world. The practices and components involved in intensive farming are harmful to the soil because farmers take advantage of the resources that are available and often abuse their terrain in such way that it harms it, leading to an increase of the rate at which the land is deteriorated.But not all methods are harmful to Nature; the method used in the forests of north India by the poorer citizens has a much better environmental impact than the industrial one used by richer farmers. As equally common, this method is called shifting farming which consists in burning a piece of land so that the ashes fertilise the soil. Then the famer grows its crops for around 2 to 5 years, until the soilÃ¢â¬â¢s fertility starts to de crease so he moves to another place repeating the same process.After a break more or less long 10 years, the farmer can go back to the first place as the terrain supposedly had time to regain its fertility and he can so for cultivate his crops again. In fact, the material and gears used, plus the methods are much different one from another. Within the subsistence one, natural fertilizers will be more likely to be used while on the intensive one, chemicals and heavy machinery often take the lead. These different strategies used to manage the soil comprise advantages and disadvantages, to both the farmers and the land.The sustainable farming strategy is on the short term less beneficial to the farmer as it will limit his production. But this technique wonÃ¢â¬â¢t make any harm to the soil because the method used is less intensive, and natural fertilisers such as animal rejections and organic wastes replace chemicals and fertilizers used in the intensive method. But as stated above, I ndia is the fourth largest agricultural force on this planet and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s when the management of the soil starts becoming problematic in accordance to its sustainability and the preservation of its quality.The choice of a farmer to opt for a specific technique rather than another relies on the income on a short period of time. Even though in India this choice mainly depends on the financial resources available, the farmers using subsistence farming will be able to use their land for a much longer period of time than those who use intensive farming. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also in the farmerÃ¢â¬â¢s benefit to use its field in a sustainable way; for environmental ssues as well as for its personal profit as on the longer term, a farmer who farms on its land in a sustainable way will be able to get an equal amount of crops over a larger period of time. To conclude, if we keep abusing the soil as they still do in certain parts of the world, by 2050 we will severely lack of available healthy s oil to satisfy our needs as a result of the populationÃ¢â¬â¢s growth rate. And even though the governments and citizens didnÃ¢â¬â¢t realise that before severe issues and frightening statistical data came out from the topic.We know how to prevent soil erosion from natural factors by simply planting grass or other clumping vegetation; building shelter belts and hedgerows are other examples. We can also improve the methods of cultivation, using the techniques of terracing and contour ploughing. But to prevent the abusing human activity like deforestation, I believe that the only answer is the willing and devotion of individuals of using proper pesticides and fertilizers. References: http://www. rajasthantour4u. com/business/agriculture. html 02. 02. 3/8:15 http://www. isric. org/ ISRIC website (World Soil Statistical data and Information collectors) 31. 01. 13/17:25 http://agriinfo. in/default. aspx? page=topic&superid=1&topicid=643 29. 01. 13/17:06 http://www. indiastudychannel. c om/resources/154743-Types-farming-India. aspx 29. 01. 13/17:03 http://vro. dpi. vic. gov. au/dpi/vro/vrosite. nsf/pages/soil_mgmt 31. 01. 13/16:18 http://www. ehow. com/about_6367388_human-impact-soils. html 28. 01. 13/16:30 http://www. mapsofindia. com/indiaagriculture/ 01. 2. 13/16:29